The Effect of Methanol Extract of Fennel on Bleomycin-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis in Rats


1 Assistant Professor, Physiology Research Center, Institute of Neuropharmacology, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran

2 Cardiovascular Research Center, Institute of Neuropharmacology, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran

3 Gasteroenterology & Hepatology Research Center, Institute of Basic and Clinical Physiology Sciences, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran

4 Assistant Professor, Department of Pharmacognosy and Herbal and Traditional Medicines Research Center, School of Pharmacy, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran

5 School of Pharmacy, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran

6 Herbal and Traditional Medicines Research Center, School of Pharmacy, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran

7 Afzalipour School of Medicine, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran

8 Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran

9 Associate Professor, Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center, Institute of Basic and Clinical Physiology Sciences, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran


Background & Aims: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic diffuse interstitial lung disease,
which has symptoms such as coughing and shortness of breath. The average survival duration in these
patients is estimated as 3 years after the onset of symptoms. Today, the therapeutic approach used in IPF
cases is the usage of chemical or herbal antioxidants in order to eliminate free radicals and prevent
inflammation and fibrosis. Considering the antioxidant properties of fennel, this research was conducted to
investigate the effect of the methanol extracted of fennel on bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats.
Methods: To induce pulmonary fibrosis in rats, intratracheal administration of 15 mg bleomycin was
conducted in 52 male rates. Subsequently, the rats were injected intraperitoneally with 500 mg/(kg body
weight) of methanol extract of fennel 14-day and 28-day periods. The samples were studied in terms of
inflammation, fibrosis, hydroxyproline concentration, lipid peroxidation, and the catalase activity of lung
tissue. The obtained results were analyzed using SPSS software.
Results: The degree of inflammation, fibrosis, hydroxyproline and lipid peroxidation concentration in lung
tissue in the fennel methanol extract group had significantly decreased compared to other groups. In addition,
a significant increase was observed in tissue catalase concentration in this group in comparison to other
groups on days 14 and 28.
Conclusion: The obtained results illustrated that the methanol extract of fennel may be efficient in the
prevention and treatment of pulmonary fibrosis due to its antioxidant properties. Accordingly, it can be
suggested for the prevention and treatment of pulmonary fibrosis instead of corticosteroids and
immunosuppressant drugs due to their many side effects and most patients’ preference of herbal medicines. 


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