Evaluation of Arsenic, Copper, Lead, Cadmium, and Iron Concentration in Drinking Water Resources of Central and Southern Bardsir Plain, Iran, in 2014

Authors

1 Professor, Environmental Health Engineering Research Center, Department of Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran

2 MSc Student in Environmental Health Engineering, Department of Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran

3 Researcher, Environmental Health Engineering Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran

Abstract

Background & Aims: The presence of heavy metals in water resources is a serious threat to human health. Due to the importance of this subject, this research was carried out to determine the concentration of heavy metals in drinking water resources of central and Southern Bardsir plain and compare the results with national and international standards. Methods: The descriptive and cross-sectional study was performed in winter 2014 in the Environmental Health Engineering Research Center of Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran. A census sampling of all drinking water resources (46 resources) of cities and villages in central and Southern Bardsir plain, Iran, was performed in the middle of each month. The concentration of heavy metals (arsenic, lead, copper, cadmium, and iron) in the samples was measured using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Data were analyzed by means of SPSS software. Results: The results of the study showed that the maximum concentration of the metals were Pb = 4, Cu = 12, Cd = 0.8, Fe = 160, and As = 210 µg/l. The concentration of arsenic in 50% of the ground water samples was higher than the World Health Organization (WHO) standards for drinking water. However, the concentrations of the other contaminants were lower than permissible level. Conclusion: High concentration of arsenic in some drinking water resources in the region under study is an important environmental problem. The higher than standard concentrations of arsenic in drinking water can be of geological origin. Because of the dangerous effects of arsenic on human health, appropriate measures should be taken by the relevant agencies.

Keywords


  1. World Health Organization. Global assessment of the state-of-the-science of endocrine disruptors. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2002.
  2. Muhammad S, Tahir Shah M, Khan S. Health risk assessment of heavy metals and their source apportionment in drinking water of Kohistan region, northern Pakistan. Microchemical Journal 2011; 98(2): 334-43.
  3. Goldar B, Banerjee N. Impact of informal regulation of pollution on water quality in rivers in India. Journal of Environmental Management 2004; 73(2): 117-30.
  4. Momodu MA, Anyakora CA. Heavy metal contamination of ground water: the surulere case study. Research Journal Environmental and Earth Sciences 2010; 2(1): 39-43.
  5. Malassa H, Al-Qutob M, Al-Khatib M, Al-Rimawi F. Determination of different trace heavy metals in ground water of south west bank/Palestine by ICP/MS. Journal of Environmental Protection 2013; 4(8): 818-27.
  6. Rajaei Q, Pourkhabbaz AR, Hesari Motlagh S. Assessment of heavy metals health risk of groundwater in Ali Abad Katoul plain. J North Khorasan Univ Med Sci 2012; 4(2): 155-62. [In Persian].
  7. Kumar M, Kumar A, Singh S, Mahajan RK, Walia TPS. Uranium content measurement in drinking water samples using track etch technique. Radiation Measurements 2003; 36(1-6): 479-81.
  8. Kaplan O, Cikcikoglu Yildirim N, Yildirim, Yildirim N, Tayhan N. Assessment of some heavy metals in drinking water samples of Tunceli, Turkey. E-Journal of Chemistry 2011; 8(2011): 276-80.
  9. Nasrabadi T, Bidabadi NS. Evaluating the spatial distribution of quantitative risk and hazard level of arsenic exposure in groundwater, case study of Qorveh County, Kurdistan Iran. Iranian J Environ Health Sci Eng 2013; 10(1): 30.
  10. Rakhunde R, Jasudkar D, Deshpande L, Juneja HD, Labhasetwar P. Health effects and significance of arsenic speciation in water. International Journal of Environmental Sciences and Research 2012; 1(4): 92-6.
  11. Smedley PL, Kinniburgh DG. A review of the source, behaviour and distribution of arsenic in natural waters. Applied Geochemistry 2002; 17(5): 517-68.
  12. Sofuoglu S, Lebowitz M, O'Rouke M, Robertson GL, Dellarco M. Exposure and risk estimates for Arizona drinking water. Journal - American Water Works Association 2003; 7(95): 67-79.
  13. Jain CK, Ali I. Arsenic: occurrence, toxicity and speciation techniques. Water Research 2000; 34(17): 4304-12.
  14. Berg M, Tran HC, Nguyen TC, Pham HV, Schertenleib R, Giger W. Arsenic contamination of groundwater and drinking water in Vietnam: a human health threat. Environ Sci Technol 2001; 35(13): 2621-6.
  15. Smith AH, Lingas EO, Rahman M. Contamination of drinking-water by arsenic in Bangladesh: a public health emergency. Bull World Health Organ 2000; 78(9): 1093-103.
  16. Mukherjee A, Bhattacharya P, Savage K, Foster A, Bundschuh J. Distribution of geogenic arsenic in hydrologic systems: controls and challenges. J Contam Hydrol 2008; 99(1-4): 1-7.
  17. Barati AH, Maleki A, Alasvand M. Multi-trace elements level in drinking water and the prevalence of multi-chronic arsenical poisoning in residents in the west area of Iran. Sci Total Environ 2010; 408(7): 1523-9.
  18. Gyamfi ET, Ackah M, Anim AK, Hanson JK, Kpattah L, Enti-Brown S, et al. Chemical analysis of potable water samples from selected suburbs of Accra, Ghana. International Academy of Ecology and Environmental Sciences 2012; 2(2): 118-27.
  19. Milovanovic M. Water quality assessment and determination of pollution sources along the Axios/Vardar River, Southeastern Europe. Desalination 2007; 213(1-3): 159-73.
  20. Samani S, Boustani F, Hojati MH. Screen for Heavy Metals from Groundwater Samples from Industrialized Zones in Marvdasht, Kharameh and Zarghan Plains, Shiraz, Iran. World Applied Sciences Journal 2013; 22(3): 380-8.
  21. Karbasi M, Karbasi E, Saremi A, Ghorbanizade Kharazi H. Determination of heavy metals concentration in drinking water resources of Aleshtar in 2009. Yafteh 2010; 12(1): 65-70. [In Persian].
  22. Malakootian M, Mohammadi Senjedkoh S. Quality assessmnt of SIRJAN plain groundwater resources to evaluate their contamination to heavy metals at 2014. Journal of Torbat Heydarieh University of Medical Sciences 2014; 2(2): 31-9.
    [In Persian].
  23. Mansouri B, Salehi J, Etebari B, Moghaddam HK. Metal concentrations in the groundwater in Birjand flood plain, Iran. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 2012; 89(1): 138-42.
  24. Alomary A. Determination of trace metals in drinking water in Irbid City-Northern Jordan. Environ Monit Assess 2013; 185(2): 1969-75.
  25. Clesceri LS, Greenberg AE, Eaton A, American Public Health Association. Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. 20th ed. Washington, DC: American Public Health Association; 1998.
  26. Abbasnejad A, Mirzaie A, Derakhshani R, Esmaeilzadeh E. Arsenic in groundwaters of the alluvial aquifer of Bardsir plain, SE Iran. Environmental Earth Sciences 2012; 69(8): 2549-57.
  27. Mosaferi M, Taghipour H, Hassani A, Borghei M, Kamali Z, Ghadirzadeh A. Study of arsenic presence in drinking water sources: a case study. Iran J Health Environ 2008; 1(1): 19-28. [In Persian].
  28. Altas L, Isik M, Kavurmaci M. Determination of arsenic levels in the water resources of Aksaray Province, Turkey. J Environ Manage 2011; 92(9): 2182-92.
  29. Kelly JJ, Tate RL. Effects of heavy metal contamination and remediation on soil microbial communities in the vicinity of a zinc smelter. Journal of Environmental Quality 1998; 27(3): 609-17.
  30. Rui YK, Shen JB, Zhang FS. [Application of ICP-MS to determination of heavy metal content of heavy metals in two kinds of N fertilizer]. Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi 2008; 28(10): 2425-7.
  31. Jiang J, Ashekuzzaman SM, Jiang A, Sharifuzzaman SM, Chowdhury SR. Arsenic Contaminated Groundwater and Its Treatment Options in Bangladesh. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2013; 10(1): 18-46.
  32. Malakootian M, Khashi Z. Heavy metals contamination of drinking water supplies in southeastern villages of Rafsanjan plain: survey of arsenic, cadmium, lead and copper. Journal of Health in the Field 2014; 2(1): 1-9. [In Persian].
  33. Pirsaheb M, Khosravi T, Sharafi K, Babajani L, Rezaei M. Measurement of heavy metals concentration in drinking water from source to consumption site in Kermanshah - Iran. World Applied Sciences Journal 2013; 21(3): 416-23.
  34. Rajaei Q, Jahantigh H, Mir A, Hesari Motlagh S, Hasanpour M. Evaluation of Concentration of Heavy Metals in Chahnimeh Water Reservoirs of Sistan-va-Baloochestan Province in 2010. J Mazandaran Univ Med Sci 2012; 22(90): 105-12. [In Persian].
  35. Environmental Health of Iran. Chemical specifications of drinking water [Online]. [cited 2009 Jul 27]; Available from: URL: http://www.environmentalhealth.ir/187 [In Persian].
  36. United States Environmental Protection Agency. Ground water and drinking water [Online]. [cited 2009 Mar 12]; Available from: URL: http://water.epa.gov/drink/
  37. World Health Organization. A compendium of drinking-water quality standards in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2006.