1Assistant Professor, Department of Physical Education, Afzalipour School of Medicine AND Physiology Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences Kerman, Iran
2Assistant Professor, Department of Physical Education, School of Education Sciences and Psychology, Payame Noor University, Garmsar, Iran
3Assistant Professor, of Sport Management, School of Education Sciences and Psychology, Shahid Bahonar University, Kerman, Iran
4Professor, Department of Physical Education, School of Education Sciences and Psychology, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran
Background & Aims: Physical activity in leisure time can increase life expectancy in disabled people via increasing freshness, communicating with others, and participating in community activities and can prevent withdrawal and malaise. The aim of this research was surveying on barriers for wheelchair-user disabled people in their recreational activities in southeast of Iran. Methods: In functional survey, the statistical population contained all of the wheelchair-user people of southeast provinces of Iran and the sample was 370 that were chosen via stratified random sampling method. A researcher-made questionnaire was used which face and content reliability was confirmed by sport management professors; and the structural reliability confirmatory factor analysis showed its high structural reliability. Cronbach's alpha and correlation coefficients was used to certitude the validity. Research data were analyzed using descriptive, inferential Friedman, repeatedmeasures ANOVA, and Wilks' Lambda tests in SPSS software. Results: There were significant differences between the mean ranks of individual (χ2 = 211.166, P < 0.05) and structural (χ2 = 40.715, P < 0.05) barriers; while there was no significant difference between the mean ranks of cultural-social barriers (χ2 = 1.498, P > 0.05) affecting leisure time physical activities in wheelchairuser disabled. There was significant difference between the means of individual, structural and cultural-social barriers (F= 38.216, P < 0.05). The mean of cultural-social barriers (3.40 ± 0.91) was significantly more than individual (2.96 ± 0.79) and structural (3.06 ± 0.89) barriers. There was no significant difference between personal and structural barriers (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Wheelchair-based people consider more of the constraints to be related to the society, coworkers’ and familiars’ attitudes. Supportive approaches on disabled people would be pervasive in all aspect not limited just in physical and ergonomic structural ones. Physical activity is and inevitable need of life and is more important for disabled people, due their special condition.
Andrade MS, Mendonca LM, Chadi G. Treadmill running protects spinal cord contusion from secondary degeneration. Brain Res 2010; 1346: 266-78.
Zarandi H, Mohades F. Comparison of general health in Iranian physical disabled athletes and non-athletes with spinal cord injuries. Research Journal of International Studies 2011; 18: 96.
Kiani M, Shirvani T, Ghanbari H, Kiani S. Position on how to spend leisure time sports activities for the Veterans and Disabled. Teb-e-Janbaz Iran J War Public Health 2013; 5(2): 26-34. [In Persian].
Han K, Choi-Kwon S, Lee SK. Leisure time physical activity in patients with epilepsy in Seoul, South Korea. Epilepsy Behav 2011; 20(2): 321-5.
Kehn M, Kroll T. Staying physically active after spinal cord injury: a qualitative exploration of barriers and facilitators to exercise participation. BMC Public Health 2009; 9: 168.
Hannon F. Promoting the participation of people with disabilities in physical activity and sport in Ireland [Online]. [cited 2005 Oct]; Available from: URL: http://www.efds.co.uk/assets/0000/6284/OO111.pdf
Rimmer JA, Rowland JL. Physical activity for youth with disabilities: a critical need in an underserved population. Dev Neurorehabil 2008; 11(2): 141-8.
Erikson E, Erikson JM, Kivnick HQ. Vital involvement in old age. New York, NY: William Warder Norton; 1994.
Brennan M. Spirituality and psychosocial development in middle-age and older adults with vision loss. Journal of Adult Development 2002; 9(1): 31-46.
Bruce B, Fries JF, Hubert H. Regular vigorous physical activity and disability development in healthy overweight and normal-weight seniors: a 13-year study. Am J Public Health 2008; 98(7): 1294-9.
Moore-Harrison TL, Speer EM, Johnson FT, Cress ME. The effects of aerobic training and nutrition education on functional performance in low socioeconomic older adults. J Geriatr Phys Ther 2008; 31(1): 18-23.
Brooks GA, Butte NF, Rand WM, Flatt JP, Caballero B. Chronicle of the Institute of Medicine physical activity recommendation: how a physical activity recommendation came to be among dietary recommendations. Am J Clin Nutr 2004; 79(5): 921S-30S.
Martin K, Latimer A, Hanley H, Watson K, Hicks A, McCartney N, et al. Sustaining exercise motivation and participation among people with spinal cord injuries--lessons learned from a 9-month intervention. Palaestra 2002; 18(1): 38.
Kim T, Hyun Mun J, Jun P, Kim GC, Sim Y, Jeong H. Leisure time physical activity of people with spinal cord injury: mainly with clubs of spinal cord injury patients in Busan-Kyeongnam, Korea. Ann Rehabil Med 2011; 35(5): 613-26.
Ginis KA, Arbour-Nicitopoulos KP, Latimer-Cheung AE, Buchholz AC, Bray SR, Craven BC, et al. Predictors of leisure time physical activity among people with spinal cord injury. Annals of Behavioral Medicine 2012; 44(1): 104-18.
Bragaru M, van Wilgen CP, Geertzen JH, Ruijs SG, Dijkstra PU, Dekker R. Barriers and facilitators of participation in sports: a qualitative study on Dutch individuals with lower limb amputation. PLoS One 2013; 8(3): e59881.
Williams TL, Smith B, Papathomas A. The barriers, benefits and facilitators of leisure time physical activity among people with spinal cord injury: a meta-synthesis of qualitative findings. Health Psychology Review 2014; 8(4): 404-25.
Alizadeh MH, Gharakhanloo R. Examined how leisure disability (with an emphasis on sports activities). Harakat 2000; 6: 23-40. [In Persian].
Khaleghi S. Participation in sporting activities in their leisure time and quality of life of disabled veterans and active and passive. [Thesis]. Amol, Iran: School of Physical Education and Sport Sciences 2009. [In Persian].
Rajabzadeh R. Determinants of leisure time physical impairment of Northern Khorasan province. [MSc Thesis]. Babolsar, Iran: Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences 2010. [In Persian].
Ehsani E, Kouzeh-Chiyan H, Keshkar S. An analysis of the constraints inhibiting women from participating in recreational sports in Tehran. Research on Sport Sciences 2007; 4(17): 63-89.
Badia M, Orgaz BM, Verdugo MA, Ullan AM, Martinez MM. Personal factors and perceived barriers to participation in leisure activities for young and adults with developmental disabilities. Res Dev Disabil 2011; 32(6): 2055-63.
Zebardast MA, Ghahreman Tabrizi K. the relationship between the amounts of leisure time physical activity with some variables related to Iranian people with spinal cord injury. Management of Sport and Movement Sciences 2013; 3(5): 45-57. [In Persian].
Shokrani E. Report of the meeting of young people in sport and leisure. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education 2011; 38: 29-33. [In Persian].
Shapiro DR, Martin JJ. Athletic identity, affect, and peer relations in youth athletes with physical disabilities. Disabil Health J 2010; 3(2): 79-85.