The Relationship of Perfectionism Dimensions and Personality Type with Migraine


1 Assistant Professor, Department of Psychology, Zarand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Zarand, Iran

2 Research Assistant, Department of Psychology, Zarand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Zarand, Iran

3 Assistant Professor, Afzalipour School of Medicine, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran


Background & Aims: Migraine is a common clinical and chronic disorder. The rate of psychological problems is high among these patients. This study examined the relationship of perfectionism dimensions and personality type with migraine headaches. Methods: This was correlational study on 68 patients referring to neurologists in the city of Kerman, Iran. Participants responded to personality type and intensity of headache questionnaires and multidimensional perfectionism scale (MPS). Data were analyzed using regression analysis. Results: A significant correlation was found between type A personality and dimensions of perfectionism, and migraine. Moreover, type A personality and community-oriented and self-oriented perfectionism are predictors of migraine, but other-oriented perfectionism is not a predictor of migraine. Conclusion: The results of this research showed that personality characteristics, especially type A that is associated with a kind of pressure and time urgency, and perfectionism of patients with migraine should be considered in any treatment.


  1. Dent W, Stelzhammer B, Meindl M, Matuja WB, Schmutzhard E, Winkler AS. Migraine attack frequency, duration, and pain intensity: disease burden derived from a community-based survey in northern Tanzania. Headache 2011; 51(10): 1483-92.
  2. Rohrs Hilgard J. Hypnosis in the relief of pain. London, UK: Psychology Press; 1994.
  3. Mirzaei MGH. A review of cammon migraine in girls high school and related fall in education in Shahrekord region. J Shahrekord Univ Med Sci 2004; 5(4): 55-62. [In Persian].
  4. Dahlof CGH, Solomon GD. Impact of headache on the individual and family. In: Olesen J, Tfelt-Hansen P, Welch MA, Editors. The headaches. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2000.
  5. Nicholson RA, Houle TT, Rhudy JL, Norton PJ. Psychological risk factors in headache. Headache 2007; 47(3): 413-26.
  6. Green MW. Headaches: psychiatric aspects. Neurol Clin 2011; 29(1): 65-80, vii.
  7. Ropper AH. Headache and other craniofacial pains. In: Victor M, Ropper AH, Editors. Adams and Victor's manual of neurology. New York, NY: McGraw Hill Professional; 2001. p. 176-85.
  8. Antonaci F, Nappi G, Galli F, Manzoni GC, Calabresi P, Costa A. Migraine and psychiatric comorbidity: a review of clinical findings. J Headache Pain 2011; 12(2): 115-25.
  9. Curone M, Tullo V, Mea E, Proietti-Cecchini A, Peccarisi C, Bussone G. Psychopathological profile of patients with chronic migraine and medication overuse: study and findings in 50 cases. Neurol Sci 2011; 32(Suppl 1): S177-S179.
  10. Radat F, Milowska D, Valade D. Headaches secondary to psychiatric disorders (HSPD): a retrospective study of 87 patients. Headache 2011; 51(5): 789-95.
  11. Lafittau M, Radat F, Irachabal S, Creac'h C. [Headache and transformed migraine with medication overuse: what differences between disability, emotional distress and coping?]. Encephale 2006; 32(2 Pt 1): 231-7.
  12. Hemati A. 300 patients with migraine epidemiology in hospitals and private clinics during 77-1375. Pajohandeh 2000; 5(1): 41-50. [In Persian].
  13. Boos CH, David K. Headache and other craniofacial pain. In: Bradley WG, Editor. Neurology in Clinical Practice: Principles of diagnosis and management. Oxford, UK: Butterworth-Heinemann, 2004. p. 2070-90.
  14. D'Amico D, Libro G, Prudenzano MP, Peccarisi C, Guazzelli M, Relja G, et al. Stress and chronic headache. The Journal of Headache and Pain 2000; 1(Suppl 1): S49-S52.
  15. McAnulty DP. Psychological correlates of head pain. Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University; 1994.
  16. Matthews K. Psychological perspectives on the type A behavior pattern. Psychological Bulletin, 1982; 91(2): 293-323.
  17. Champoux J. Organizational Behavior. The management of individual and organizational performance. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon; 1994.
  18. Muchinsky P, Marchese MC. Psychology applied to work: student exercise book. 3rd ed. Belmont, CA: Thomson/Wadsworth; 1990.
  19. Flett GL, Hewitt PL, Blankstein K, O'Brien S. Perfectionism and learned resourcefulness in depression and self-esteem. Personality and Individual Differences 1991; 12(1): 61-8.
  20. Savari K. Relationship between mental health, life satisfaction and perfectionism with migrane headache. Health and knowledge 2012; 8(1): 1-6.
  21. Flett G, Hewitt PL. Perfectionism: theory, research, and treatment. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association; 2002.
  22. Speirs Neumeister KL. Understanding the relationship between perfectionism and achievement motivation in gifted college students. Gifted Child Quarterly 2004; 48(3): 219-31.
  23. Emamipour S, Sabzmeydani P. Relationship between personality traits and perfectionism with students mental healths. Psychology Research 2009; 2(5):95-106. [In Persian].
  24. Hadjistavropoulos H, Dash H, Hadjistavropoulos T, Sullivan T. Recurrent pain among university students: Contributions of self-efficacy and perfectionism to the pain experience. Personality and Individual Differences 2007; 42(6): 1081-91.
  25. Shafran R, Mansell W. Perfectionism and psychopathology: a review of research and treatment. Clin Psychol Rev 2001; 21(6): 879-906.
  26. Guidetti V, Galli F, Sheftell F. Headache attributed to psychiatric disorders. Handb Clin Neurol 2010; 97: 657-62.
  27. Paymannya B, Mosavi Gieh Gheshlagi E. Comparison of percepted stress and personality traits among migren patients and normal person. Yazd Shahid Sadoghi Medical Science Journal 2013; 22(2):1067-78. [In Persian].
  28. de Tommaso M, Federici A, Loiacono A, Delussi M, Todarello O. Personality profiles and coping styles in migraine patients with fibromyalgia comorbidity. Compr Psychiatry 2014; 55(1): 80-6.
  29. Johari Fard R, Goli F, Bromand A, Scheidt CE. Regressions of cognitive, personality and family variables in Iranian patients with migraine headache. European Psychiatry 2013; 28(Suppl 1): 1.
  30. International committee for classification of headache, IHS descriptions and diagnostic criteria, Cephalagia 1997; 17(19): 9-32.
  31. Wewers ME, Lowe NK. A critical review of visual analogue scales in the measurement of clinical phenomena. Research in Nursing and Health 1990; 13, 227-36.
  32. Besharat MA. Development and validation of the Tehran multidimensional perfectionism scale. Psychological Research 2007; 10(1-2): 49-67. [In Persian].
  33. Friedman M. Treating type A behavior and your heart. New York, NY: Fawcett Crest, 1996.