1Assistant Professor, Physical Education Department, Lorestan University, Khorramabad, Iran
2Associate Professor, hematology Department, Medical Sciences Faculty, TarbiatModares University, Tehran, Iran
Background & Aims: The expression of myocardium gene can be affected by endurance activity; besides, sox6 transcription factor influences its formation. This study aimed to investigate the effect of 14 weeks of endurance activity on expression of sox6 gene of left ventricle in male Wistar rats. Methods: Forteen rats were housed under the controlled conditions and after adjusting with endurance program, were randomly assigned into two groups of control and experimental. For the experimental group, an endurance program (14 weeks, 6 days/week, 60 minutes/day, and velocity of 30 m/minutes) on motorized treadmill was performed. Then, the rats were anesthetized and sacrificed 48 hours after the end of the last session and the left ventricle was removed. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method was used to determine the expression levels of sox6 gene in the left ventricle. The collected data were evaluated using t-test. Results: The ratio of left ventricle weight (LVW) to the body surface area (BSA) was significantly (P=0.010) higher in experimental group (0.168 ± 0.008 g/m2 ) compared to the control group (0.153±0.006g/m2 ). The ratio of heart weight (HW) to the body surface area was significantly (P = 0.002) higher in experimental group (0.270 ± 0.014) compared to the control group (0.240 ± 0.019), too. In addition, the mean expression value of sox6 gene of left ventricle was significantly higher in experimental group (P = 0.001), too. Conclusion: It seems that physical activity improves heart functional indices (the ratio of left ventricle and heart weight to body surface area), especial in left ventricle, via increasing the expression ofsox6 gene.
Chen SR, Lee YJ, Chiu HW, Jeng C. Impact of physical activity on heart rate variability in children with type 1 diabetes. Childs Nerv Syst 2008; 24(6): 741-7.
Chaunchaiyakul R, Groeller H, Clarke JR, Taylor NA. The impact of aging and habitual physical activity on static respiratory work at rest and during exercise. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2004; 287(6): L1098-L1106.
Cawley J, Meyerhoefer C, Newhouse D. The impact of state physical education requirements on youth physical activity and overweight. Health Econ 2007; 16(12): 1287-301.
King G, Wood MJ. The heart of the endurance athlete assessed by echocardiography and its modalities: "embracing the delicate balance". Curr Cardiol Rep 2013; 15(8): 383.
Fathi M, Gharakanlou R, Abroun S, Mokhtari-Dizaji M, Rezaei R. The evaluation of cardiac changes following endurance training in male Wistar rats. Yafteh 2014; 15(5): 112-23. [In Persian].
Pluim BM, Zwinderman AH, van der Laarse A, van der Wall EE. The athlete's heart. A meta-analysis of cardiac structure and function. Circulation 2000; 101(3): 336-44.
Frey N, Olson EN. Cardiac hypertrophy: the good, the bad, and the ugly. Annu Rev Physiol 2003; 65: 45-79.
Takahashi T, Schunkert H, Isoyama S, Wei JY, Nadal-Ginard B, Grossman W, et al. Age-related differences in the expression of proto-oncogene and contractile protein genes in response to pressure overload in the rat myocardium. J Clin Invest 1992; 89(3): 939-46.
Pelliccia A, Maron MS, Maron BJ. Assessment of left ventricular hypertrophy in a trained athlete: differential diagnosis of physiologic athlete's heart from pathologic hypertrophy. Prog Cardiovasc Dis 2012; 54(5): 387-96.
Matsakas A. Molecular advances shed light on cardiac myosin heavy chain expression in health and disease. Exp Physiol 2009; 94(12): 1161-2.
Hagiwara N, Ma B, Ly A. Slow and fast fiber isoform gene expression is systematically altered in skeletal muscle of the sox6 mutant, p100H. Dev Dyn 2005; 234(2): 301-11.
Sluijter JP, van Mil A, Korfage TH, Metz CH, Doevendans PA, Goumans MJ. MicroRNA-1 Regulates cardiomyocyte differentiation and proliferation in human-derived cardiomyocyte progenitor cells. Circulation 2007; 116: 223.
van Rooij E, Sutherland LB, Qi X, Richardson JA, Hill J, Olson EN. Control of stress-dependent cardiac growth and gene expression by a micro RNA. Science 2007; 316(5824): 575-9.
Cohen-Barak O, Yi Z, Hagiwara N, Monzen K, Komuro I, Brilliant MH. sox6 regulation of cardiac myocyte development. Nucleic Acids Res 2003; 31(20): 5941-8.
Jin H, Yang R, Li W, Lu H, Ryan AM, Ogasawara AK, et al. Effects of exercise training on cardiac function, gene expression, and apoptosis in rats. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2000; 279(6): H2994-H3002.
Sun L, Shen W, Liu Z, Guan S, Liu J, Ding S. Endurance exercise causes mitochondrial and oxidative stress in rat liver: effects of a combination of mitochondrial targeting nutrients. Life Sci 2010; 86(1-2): 39-44.
Zhu SS, Ma JZ, Yong YH, Niu J, Zhang JN. Left ventricular function in physiologic and pathologic hypertrophy in Sprague–Dawley rats. Science and Sports 2008; 23(6): 299-305.
Seo JS, Lee SY, Won KJ, Kim DJ, Sohn DS, Yang KM, et al. Relationship between normal heart size and body indices in Korean. J Korean Med Sci 2000; 15(6): 641-6.
Farriol M, Rosselló J, Schwartz S. Body surface area in Sprague-Dawley rats. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 1997; 77(1-5): 61-5.
Silver N, Cotroneo E, Proctor G, Osailan S, Paterson KL, Carpenter GH. Selection of housekeeping genes for gene expression studies in the adult rat submandibular gland under normal, inflamed, atrophic and regenerative states. BMC Mol Biol 2008; 9: 64.
Livak KJ, Schmittgen TD. Analysis of relative gene expression data using real-time quantitative PCR and the 2(-Delta Delta C(T)) Method. Methods 2001; 25(4): 402-8.
Yuan JS, Reed A, Chen F, Stewart CN. Statistical analysis of real-time PCR data. BMC Bioinformatics 2006; 7: 85.
Wong ML, Medrano JF. Real-time PCR for mRNA quantitation. Biotechniques 2005; 39(1): 75-85.
Schmittgen TD, Livak KJ. Analyzing real-time PCR data by the comparative C(T) method. Nat Protoc 2008; 3(6): 1101-8.
Pfaffl MW. A new mathematical model for relative quantification in real-time RT-PCR. Nucleic Acids Res 2001; 29(9): e45.
Kamachi Y, Uchikawa M, Kondoh H. Pairing sox off: with partners in the regulation of embryonic development. Trends Genet 2000; 16(4): 182-7.
Reiser PJ, Portman MA, Ning XH, Schomisch MC. Human cardiac myosin heavy chain isoforms in fetal and failing adult atria and ventricles. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2001; 280(4): H1814-H1820.
Wisloff U, Helgerud J, Kemi OJ, Ellingsen O. Intensity-controlled treadmill running in rats: VO(2 max) and cardiac hypertrophy. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2001; 280(3): H1301-H1310.
Rohini A, Agrawal N, Koyani CN, Singh R. Molecular targets and regulators of cardiac hypertrophy. Pharmacol Res 2010; 61(4): 269-80.
Connor F, Wright E, Denny P, Koopman P, Ashworth A. The Sry-related HMG box-containing gene sox6 is expressed in the adult testis and developing nervous system of the mouse. Nucleic Acids Res 1995; 23(17): 3365-72.
Hagiwara N, Klewer SE, Samson RA, Erickson DT, Lyon MF, Brilliant MH. sox6 is a candidate gene for p100H myopathy, heart block, and sudden neonatal death. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2000; 97(8): 4180-5.
Quiat D, Voelker KA, Pei J, Grishin NV, Grange RW, Bassel-Duby R, et al. Concerted regulation of myofiber-specific gene expression and muscle performance by the transcriptional repressor sox6. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2011; 108(25): 10196-201.
Zacharewicz E, Lamon S, Russell AP. MicroRNAs in skeletal muscle and their regulation with exercise, ageing, and disease. Front Physiol 2013; 4: 266.
Lefebvre V. Toward understanding the functions of the two highly related sox5 and sox6 genes. J Bone Miner Metab 2002; 20(3): 121-30.
Lefebvre V, Li P, de Crombrugghe B. A new long form of sox5 (L-sox5), sox6 and sox9 are coexpressed in chondrogenesis and cooperatively activate the type II collagen gene. EMBO J 1998; 17(19): 5718-33.
Wang X, Ono Y, Tan SC, Chai RJ, Parkin C, Ingham PW. Prdm1a and miR-499 act sequentially to restrict sox6 activity to the fast-twitch muscle lineage in the zebrafish embryo. Development 2011; 138(20): 4399-404.