Mapping and Review of Leishmaniasis, its Vectors and Main Reservoirs in Iran

Authors

1 Associate Professor, Infectious and Tropical Diseases Research Center, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran

2 Associate Professor, Health Geomatics Research Center, School of Medicine, Artesh University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

3 Assistant Professor, Department of Medical Entomology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

4 Associate Professor, Department of Medical Entomology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

Abstract

Background & Aims: Despite improvements in public health in Iran, cutaneous leishmaniasis has become a growing health issue. About 90% of cutaneous leishmaniasis cases occur in 8 countries including Iran. Kala-azar or visceral leishmaniasis, as an important parasitic disease, is endemic in some areas of Iran. Mapping the distribution of parasitic diseases and determining their relations to geographic factors are increasing in importance for experts. This study was carried out to provide distribution maps of the geographical pathology of leishmaniasis in Iran with no emphasis on medical entomology or parasitology. Methods: A systematic literature review was performed and the data and/or metadata were used for evaluation of findings. Data of leishmaniasis were obtained from the Iran Center for Diseases Control, in the Ministry of Health in 2002 and 2009. Incidence or prevalence of the diseases and also scientific names of vectors and reservoirs with collection details were arranged as a shapefile in ArcGIS software and were mapped. Results: Distribution maps of the diseases, host reservoirs, and vectors are provided as a systematic review. Conclusion: It seems that zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis is mostly observed in desert and semi-desert habitats far from Alborz and Zagros mountainous areas. Visceral leishmaniasis in dogs may be related to precipitation, temperature, and elevation in Ardebil Province, Iran. There are some gaps in distribution maps which represent future study opportunities for scholars as this lack of data does not signify the lack of prevalence of the disease but the lack of studies in these areas

Keywords