Frequency of Dysplastic and Cancerous Pap Smear and Genotyping of Human Papillomavirus by DNA Probetechniques in Kerman, Iran

Authors

1 Assistant Professor, Department of Pathology, Afzalipour School of Medicine, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran

2 Professor, Department of Pathology, Afzalipour School of Medicine, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran Physiology Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran

3 Resident of Pathology, Afzalipour School of Medicine, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran

4 Associate Professor, Department of Community Medicine, Afzalipour School of Medicine, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran

5 PhD Student of Medical Biotechnology, Pasteur Institute of Iran and Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran

6 . Pharmaceutics Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran

7 Associate Professor, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Afzalipour School of Medicine, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran

8 Professor, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran

9 Associate Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Physiology Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran

Abstract

Background & Aims: Around the world, cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women. Today, screening programs have reduced morbidity and mortality rates of this disease. Epidemiological and molecular studies have shown that certain types of the human papillomavirus are carcinogen types and the primary cause of cervical cancer. HPV type 16 and 18 are the most common high-risk types. In this study, frequency of different HPV genotypes in women who referred for a routine visit to an outpatient clinic of Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Iran, has been obtained by DNA probe technique. Methods: Our study is a cross-sectional, analytic study on 20000 Pap smear samples over four consecutive years among women in reproductive ages (15-50 years) referred to University centers and private institutions in Kerman, Iran. All samples were collected in the laboratory of Afzalipour, and Bahonar Hospitals, and private institutions. The typical samples of dysplasia and cancer were reviewed by two pathologists and a pathology assistant according to the World Health Organization standards. The samples were examined after DNA extraction and molecular DNA probe technique. Results: 62 cases of 82 Pap smear samples were dysplastic and 20 samples were diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Moreover, 20 cases (32.2%) of dysplastic Pap smears and 12 cases (60%) of SCC samples were HPV positive. A total of 32 patients (39%) were positive for HPV. Of all samples only two were genotype 18 (25.6%), one was a mixture of 16 and 31 genotypes, and the remaining were all genotype 16 (93.75%). In the comparison between dysplasia severity (mild, moderate, and severe) and the HPV status (+ or -), and also the relation between age and status of HPV and the severity of dysplasia no relations were found. However, there was a significant relation between detection (dysplasia, SCC) and the HPV status, and also the relation between age and type of lesion diagnosis. Conclusion: Based on the findings of our study and the Iranian culture, prevalence of HPV infection among women with cervical cancer is less common than in other countries. HPV type 16, which is a carcinogenic genotype, was the predominant genotype.

Keywords