1Microbiologist, Food & Drug Control Reference Laboratory Center, Tehran, Iran
2Resident of Pathology, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Bacterial endocarditis is the infection of inner lining of heart and /or heart valves. This disease is usually related to the presence of some pathogenic bacteria in mouth, digestive system or urinary tract. Most of the times, this infection happens in people with heart problems like the presence of prosthetic valves, history of previous endocarditis, some congenital heart defects and heart transplant. Some bacteria which are able to reach into blood and produce bacteremia are able to cause endocarditis in these patients. Some pathogenic bacteria in mouth may produce this disease after causing periodontal infection and reaching into bloodstream. Among these bacteria, some Gram positive cocci and Gram negative bacilli have important roles. To prevent this disease, it is recommended to consider oral hygiene and to receive antibiotic prophylaxis before some dental surgeries.