Document Type: Original Article
Professor of Physiology, Physiology Research Center and Department of Physiology, Institute of Neuropharmacology, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
PhD Candidate of Physiology, Cardiovascular Research Center, Institute of Basic and Clinical Physiology Sciences, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
PhD Candidate of Epidemiology, Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center, Institute of Basic and Clinical Physiology Sciences, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
Gasteroentrology and Hepatology Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
Abstract Background and Aims: Cardiovascular diseases (CADs) are the most important causes of mortality and morbidity in the world and in Iran. These diseases are not completely curable but factors affecting them are preventable. The aim of this study was investigation of CAD risk factors in four municipal regions of Kerman city.
Methods: From the city postal codes, 250 postal codes (as clusters) were selected randomly. Research coordinator team attended households in clusters and all the eligible members were recruited to the study. The recruitment was continued to reach 24 subjects in each cluster. The sample size was 5900 individuals aged from 15 to 75 years old. The prevalence of CAD risk factors including diabetes, hypertension, overweight and obesity, low physical activity, hyperlipidaemia, cigarette and opium smoking, depression and anxiety, oral and dental hygiene were assessed.
Results: Overweight with overall prevalence of 30.5% in the city, showed significant different prevalence rates in four regions (region 1: 29.9%, region 2: 33.8%, region 3: 29.7% and region 4: 30.5%, P<0.001). Overall, diabetes and hypertension had prevalence rates of 8.1% and 11.3%, both with similar distribution in the four regions. However, in diabetic patients, the prevalence of abnormal HbA1C was 67.3%, 50.2%, 70.4% and 45.1% in regions one to four respectively (P<0.0005). The region four with 15.4% opium consumption had the highest rank among the four regions. Depression and anxiety had the highest prevalence in region 4 and the lowest in region 2 (P<0.01). The gingival score index was 72.6% in men and 68.1% in women with region four having the maximum prevalence of 80.1%.
Conclusion: Overall, the prevalence of CADs in Kerman is relatively high and differs based on the region. Therefore, it is recommended that in designing educational programs for improving health behaviours, those differences are considered. It is suggested that these educations persist on reduction of obesity, opium consumption and improvement of mental health in region 4, on weight and LDL reduction in region 2, on diabetes control in regions 1 and on mental health improvement in region 3.