1Assistant Professor of Microbiology, Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Sciences, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Iran
2MSc. Student of Molecular Cell Biology, Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Sciences, University of Kurdistan, Sananadaj, Iran
Background & Aims: High concentrations of selenite have carcinogenetic, cytotoxic and genotoxic effects. Therefore, removal of this toxic pullutant from the environment has a particular importance in maintaining public health. In this study, with the aim of optimization of selenite removal process, the design Box-Behnken method was used to estimate the simultaneous effect of variables on removal efficiency and to determine the optimal values of variables on selenite removal with the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus sp. Tra Cheese 6
Methods: An experimental method using a three-level Box-Behnken method fortesting the effects of four factors including concentrations of selenite ion, cell biomass, NaCl and agitation was investigated. Statistical Data Analysis was performed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) method. Regression coefficients of the second-order polynomial model were estimated. Then, by integrating the results and drawing a multivariate quadratic equation, the optimal point was precisely determined. Design-Expert software was used for data analysis.
Results: Optimum removal of selenite was obtained at initial concentration of Selenite 49.5 mM, biomass concentration of 56 g/l, NaCl concentration of 4.2 % (w/v) and agitation at 100rpm. Under these conditions, the optimal selenite removal was 77.12 % after a 24-h reaction under the resting cells of Lactobacillus sp. Tra Cheese 6.
Conclusion: In the current study, Response Surface Methodology based on Box-Behnken design was successfuly applied for improving selenite removal with the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus sp. Tra Cheese 6.
Unrine JM, Jackson BP, Hopkins WA. Selenomethionine biotransformation and incorporation into proteins along a simulated terrestrial food chain. Environ Sci Technol 2007; 41(10): 3601-6.
Köhrle J. The trace element selenium and the thyroid gland. Biochimie 1999; 81(5): 527-33.
Haug A, Graham RD, Christophersen OA, Lyons GH. How to use the world’s scarce selenium resources efficiently to increase the selenium concentration in food. Microb EcolHealthDis 2007; 19(4): 209-28.
Lavado R, Shi D, Schlenk D. Effects of salinity on the toxicity and biotransformation of L-selenomethionine in Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) embryos: mechanisms of oxidative stress. Aquat Toxicol 2012; 108: 18–22.
Ikram M, Faisal M. Comparative assessment of selenite (SeIV) detoxification to elemental selenium (Se0) by Bacillus sp. Biotechnol lett 2010; 32(9): 1255-9.
Hunter WJ, Kuykendall LD. Reduction of selenite to elemental red selenium by Rhizobium sp. strain B1. Current microbiology 2007; 55(4): 344-9.
Jaiswal SK, Prakash R, Acharya R, Nathaniel TN, Reddy AVR, Tejo PN. Bioaccessibility of selenium from Se-rich food grains of the seleniferous region of Punjab, India as analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis. CYTA Journal of Food 2012; 10(2): 160–4.
MacFarquhar JK, Broussard DL, Melstrom P, Hutchinson e, Wolkin A, Martin C, et al. Acute selenium toxicity ssociated with a dietary supplement. Arch Intern Med 2010; 170(3): 256-61.
Sun HJ, Rathinasabapathi B, Wu B, Luo J, Pu LP, Ma LQ. Arsenic and selenium toxicity and their interactive effects in humans. Environ Int 2014; 69: 148-58.
Bleys J, Navas-Acien A, Guallar E. Selenium and diabetes: more bad news for supplements. Ann Int Med 2007; 147(4):271-2.
Vinceti M, Maraldi T, Bergomi M, Malagoli C. Risk of chronic low-dose selenium overexposure in humans: insights from epidemiology and biochemistry. Rev Environ Health 2009; 24(3): 231-48.
Stewart MS, Spallholz JE, Neldner KH, Pence BC. Selenium compounds have disparate abilities to impose oxidative stress and induce apoptosis. Free Radic Biol Med 1999; 26(1-2): 42-8.
Geoffroy N, Demopoulos GP. The elimination of selenium (IV) from aqueous solution by precipitation with sodium sulfide. J Hazard Mater 2011; 185(1): 148-54.
Wang MJ, Xie YL, Chen ZJ, Yao SJ. Optimizing preparation of NaCS-chitosan complex to form a potential material for the colon-specific drug delivery system. Journal of Applied Polymer Science 2010; 117(5): 3001-12.
Ashengroph M, Nahvi I, Zarkesh-Esfahani H, Momenbeik F. Conversion of isoeugenol to vanillin by Psychrobacter sp. strain CSW4. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 2012; 166 (1): 1-12.
Box GEP, Behnken DW. Some new three level designs for the study of quantitative variables. Journal ofTechnometrics 1960; 2(4): 455-75.
Khalilian M, Zolfaghari MR, Soleimani M, Zand Monfared MR. Bacillus sp. strain QW90, a bacterial strain with a high potential application in bioremediation of selenite. Report of Health Care 2015; 1(1): 6-10.
Mishra RR, Prajapati S, Das J, Dangar TK, Das N, Thatoi H. Reduction of selenite to red elemental selenium by moderately halotolerant Bacillus megaterium strains isolated from Bhitarkanika mangrove soil and characterization of reduced product. Chemosphere 2011; 84 (9): 1231-7.
Pieniz S, Okeke BC, Andreazza R, Brandelli A. Evaluation of selenite bioremoval from liquid culture by Enterococcus species. Microbiol Res 2011; 166(3); 176-85.
Esmaeili S, Khosravi-Darani K, Pourahmad R, Nazemi L, Komeili R. Production of selenium-enriched yeast using a Plackett-Burman design. Iranian Journal of Nutrition Sciences and Food Technology 2012; 7 (2): 27-36 [In Persian].
Sharma SL, Pant A. Biodegradation and conversion of alkanes and crude oil by a marine Rhodococcus. Biodegradation 2000; 11(5):289-94.
Rathi P, Saxena RK, Gupta R. A novel alkaline lipase from Burkholderia cepacia for detergent formulation. Process Biochemistry 2001; 37(2): 187-92.
Chang YC, Lee CL, Pan TM. Statistical optimization of medium components for the production of Antrodia cinnamomea AC0623 in submerged cultures. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2006; 72(4): 654-61.
Kiran KR, Manohar B, Karanth NG, Divakar S. Response surface methodological study of esterification of lactic acid with palmitic acid catalysed by immobilized lipases from Mucor miehei and porcine pancreas. Eur Food Res Technol 2000; 211: 130-5.
Kumar D, Jain VK, Shanker G, Sirvastava A. Citric acid production by solid state fermentation using sugarcane bagasse. Process Biochemistry 2003; 38(12): 1731-8.
Rodrigues RCLB, Felipe MGA, Roberto IC, Vitolo M. Batch xylitol production from sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolyzate at controlled pH values. Bioprocess Biosyst Eng 2003; 26(2): 103-107.
Mannan S, Fakhru’l-Razi A, Alam MZ. Use of fungi to improve bioconversion of activated sludge. Water Research 2005; 39(13): 2935-43.
Soo EL, Salleh AB, Basri M, Rahman RNZA, Kamaruddin, K. Response surface methodological study on lipase-catalyzed synthesis of amino acid surfactants. Process Biochemistry 2004; 39(11): 1511-8.
Singh AK, Mehta G, Chhatpar HS. Optimization of medium constituents for improved chitinase production by Paenibacillus sp. D1 using statistical approach. Letters in Applied Microbiology 2009; 49(6): 708-14.
Singh KP, Singh AK, Gupta S, Sinha, S. Optimization of Cr (VI) reduction by zero-valent bimetallic nanoparticles using the response surface modeling approach. Desalination 2011; 270(1-3): 275-84.
Ashengroph M, Nahvi I, Amini J. Application of Taguchi Design and Response Surface Methodology for Improving Conversion of Isoeugenol into Vanillin by Resting Cells of Psychrobacter sp. CSW4. Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research 2013; 12(3): 411-21.