Kidny transplantation is often accompanied by psychological problems. Alteration in the body image is one of these problems.Body image is defined as one,s perception of this physical status which disturbed by alerted body structure, function or appearance. In this respect , this study was done to compare the body image of Donors and recipients of renal transplantation before and after the transplantation . The samples were 50 Donors and 50 recipients who had referred to selected hospitals of Tehran, and Isfahan during a period of six months. Data collection instrument was a questionnaire, based on five- point Likely scale. For data analysing ,t- test, paired-test, one way ANOVA and Yucky test were used. The results revealed that body images of Donors ,after transplantation were significantly lower than before transplantation and for recipients it is just the opposite (p<0.0001). Furthermore significant differences were observed in the body image scores alteration of recipients depending an age (p<0.01), education (p<0.05), and job (p<0.04). In the Donors group significant differences were also related to education (p<0.05) and family relation with recipients(<0.04). The Donors in the age group 27-35 years with university degrees and having official jobes and recipients whit education of diploma or higher and those who had received the transplanted kidny from a far relative or a friend were at the risk of alteration in their body image more than others.