The Relationship of Components of Mindfulness with Cognitive Emotion Regulation Strategies: The Mediating Role of Alexithymia

Document Type: Original Article

Authors

1 Assistant professor of psychology, Faculty of literature and humanities, ShahidBahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran

2 Master of General Psychology, ShahidBahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran

Abstract

Introduction: The aim of this study was to investigate the causal relationship of mindfulness and cognitive emotion regulation strategies and mediating role of alexithymia in this relationship.
Method: In this descriptive-correlational study, 355 students (192 femalesand 163 males) were recruited from ShahidBahonar university of Kerman through randomclustered sampling method. Five- facet mindfulness questionnaire (FFMQ), Toronto alexithymia scale (TAS) and cognitive emotion regulation strategies questionnaire (CERQ) were used as instruments. Data were analyzed through SPSS22 and Mplus5 software packages and using path analysis and mediation analysis.
Results: There was significant relationship between facets of mindfulness, alexithymia and cognitive emotion regulation strategies. In addition, facet of difficulty in identifying feelings had partial mediating role in relationship between facets of mindfulness and positive emotion regulation strategies.
Conclusion: Results indicated that mindfulness has a significant role in prediction of different aspects of alexithymia and cognitive emotion regulation and it can be useful for improvement of emotional problems.

Keywords


  1. Kabat-Zinn J. Mindfulness-Based Interventions in context: Past, Present and Future. Clinical Psychology: Science and practice 2003; 10(2): 144-56.
  2. Schroevers MJ. Brandsma R. Is learning mindfulness associated with improved affect after mindfulness-based cognitive therapy. Br J Psychol 2010; 101(Pt1): 95-107.
  3. Zeidan F, Gordon NS, Merchant J, Goolkasian P. The effect of brief mindfulness meditation training on experimentally induced Pain. J Pain 2010; 11(3): 199-209.
  4. Bohlmeijer E, Prenger R, Taal E,Cuijpers P. The effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction therapy on mental health of adults with a chronic medical disease: A meta-analysis. J Psychosom Res 2010; 68(6): 539-44.
  5. Carmody J, Bear RA. Relationship between mindfulness practice and levels of mindfulness, medical and psychological symptoms and well-being in a mindfulness-based stress reduction program. JBehave Med 2008; 31(1): 23-33.
  6. Boyce M, Sawang S. Unpacking the role of mindfulness on conscientiousness and spirituality. The Interdisciplinary Journal of Research on Religion 2014; 10(6): 1-21.
  7. Sajadi M, Mousavi-Nasab MH. The role of big five personality factors in predicting of mindfulness and subjective well-being.Research in psychological health 2014; 8(3): 1-12.
  8. Fisak B, Von Lehe AC. The Relation between the Five Facets of Mindfulness and Worry in a Non-Clinical Sample. Mindfulness 2012; 3(1): 15-21.
  9. Gratz KL, Roemer L. Multidimensional assessment of emotion regulation and dysregulation: development, factor structure, and initial validation of the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment 2004; 26(1): 41-54.
  10. Garnefski N, Van den Kommer T, Kraaij V, Teerds J, Legerstee J, Onstein E. The relationship between cognitive emotion regulation strategies and emotional problems: Comparison between clinical and a nonclinical sample. European Journal of Personality 2002; 16(5): 403-20.
  11. Brown KW, Goodman RJ, Inzlicht M. Dispositional mindfulness and the attenuation of neural responses to emotional stimuli. SCAN 2013; 8(1): 93-9.
  12. Holahan CJ, Moos RH, Holahan CK, Cronkite RC, Randall PK. Drinking to cope and alcohol use and abuse in unipolar depression: A 10-year model. J AbnormPsychol 2003; 112(1): 159-65.
  13. Barnhofer T, Duggan D, Crane C, Hepburn, S, Fennell MJ, Williams JM, Mark J. Effects of meditation on frontal (alpha) asymmetry in previously suicidal individuals. Neuroreport 2007; 18(7): 709-12.
  14. Brown KW, Ryan RM, Creswell JD. Mindfulness: theoretical foundations and evidence for its salutary effects. Psychological Inquiry 2007; 18: 211-37.
  15. Pearson MR, Lawless AK, Brown DB, Bravo AJ. Mindfulness and emotional outcomes: Identifying subgroups of college students using latent profile analysis. Personality and Individual Differences 2015; 76: 33-8.
  16. Vujanovic AA, Bonn-Miller MO, Bernstein A, McKee LG, Zvolensky MJ. Incremental validity of mindfulness skills in relation to emotional dysregulation among a young adult community sample. Cog BehavTher 2010; 39(3): 203-13.
  17. Roemer L, Lee JK, Salters-Pedneault K, Erisman SM, Orsillo SM, Mennin DS. Mindfulness and emotion regulation difficulties in generalized anxiety disorder: preliminary evidence for independent and overlapping contributions. Behavior Ther 2009; 40(2): 142-54.
  18. Desrosiers A,Vine V, Curtiss J. Klemanski DH. Observing nonreactively: A conditional process model linking mindfulness facets, cognitive emotion regulation strategies, and depression and anxiety symptoms. J Affect Disord 2014; 165: 31-37
  19. Reese ED. Zielinski MJ. Veilleux J. Facets of mindfulness mediate behavioral inhibition systems and emotion dysregulation. Personality and Individual Differences 2015; 72: 41-6.
  20. Goldin, PR. Gross, JJ. Effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) on emotion regulation in social anxiety disorder. Emotion 2010; 10(1): 83-91.
  21. Hill CL, Updegraff JA. Mindfulness and its relationship to emotional regulation. Emotion 2012; 12(1): 81-90.
  22. Luberto CM, Cotton S, McLeish CA,Mingione CJ, Bryan EM. Mindfulness Skills and Emotion Regulation: the Mediating Role of Coping Self-Efficacy. Mindfulness 2014; 5(4): 373-80.
  23. Coffey KA, Hartman M, Fredrickson BL. Deconstructing mindfulness and constructing mental health: understanding mindfulness and its mechanisms of action. Mindfulness 2010; 1(4): 235-53.
  24. Hofstetter CR,Sallis JF,Hovell MF. Some health dimensions of self-efficacy: analysis of theoretical specificity.SocSciMed 1990; 31(9): 1051-56.
  25. Chesney MA. Neilands TB. Chambers DB, Taylor JM,Folkman S. A validity and reliability study of the coping self-efficacy scale. BrJ Health Psychol 2006; 11(Pt3): 421-37.
  26. Taylor GJ, Bagby RM. The handbook of emotional intelligence: theory, development, assessment, and application at home, school and in the workplace. 1sted., San Francisco,Jossey-Bass Press, 2000; PP 263-76.
  27. Teixeira RJ, Pereira MJ. Examining Mindfulness and Its Relation to Self-Differentiation and Alexithymia. 2015; 6(1): 79-87.
  28. Honkalampi K,Hintikka J, Saarinen P,Lehtonen J,Viinamaki H. Is alexithymia a permanent feature in depressed outpatients? Results from a 6-monthfollow-up study. PsychotherPsychosom 2000; 69(6): 303-08.
  29. Nydahl O. The way things are. UK, O Books, 2008 PP.
  30. Gross JJ. John OP. Individual differences in two emotion regulation processes: Implications for affect, relationships, and well-being. J PersSocPsychol 2003; 85(2): 348-62.
  31. ChenJXu, Jing J, Chan RCK. Alexithymia and emotional regulation: A cluster analytical approach. BMC Psychiatry 2011: 11: 33.
  32. Connelly M. Denney DR. Regulation of emotions during experimental stress in alexithymia. J Psychosom Res 2007; 62(6): 649- 56.
  33. Baer RA, Smith GT, Allen KB. Assessment of mindfulness by self-report: the kentochyinrentory of mindfulness skills. Assessment 2004; 11(3): 191-206.
  34. Canada AL. Murphy PE, Fitchett G, Peterman AH,Shover LR. A 3-factor model for the FACIT-Sp. Psychoncology 2008; 17(9): 908-16.
  35. Allison F. Mindfulness and Quality of Life among Breast Cancer Survivors: The Mediating Role of Self-Kindness and Alexithymia. Ph.D. Theseis 2011; PP 153.
  36. Kline RB. Principles and practice of structural equation modeling 3rded., New York, NY, The Guilford Press, 2011; PP
  37. Baer RA, Smith GT, Lykins E, Button D, Krietemeyer J, Sauser S, et al. Construct validity of the five facet mindfulness questionnaire in meditating and nonmeditating samples. Assessment 2008; 15(3): 329-42.
  38. Heydarinasab L,Ahmadvand Z, Shairi M. Aninvestigation of the Validity and reliability of psychometric characteristies of five facet mindfulness questionnaire in Iranian non-clinical Iranian samples. BehavioralSciences2013; 7(3): 229-37.
  39. Abdi S, Taban S, Ghaemian A. Cognitive emotion regulation questionnaire: Validity and reliability of the Persian translation of the CERQ (36-item). Social and Behavioral Sciences 2012; 32: 2 -7.
  40. Besharat MA. Reliability and factorial validity of Farsi version of the 20-item Toronto alexithymia scale with a sample of Iranian students. Psychol Rep 2007; 101(1): 209-20.
  41. Bentler PM. Comparative fit indexes in structural models. Psychol Bull 1990; 107(2): 238-46.
  42. Browne MW, Cudeck R. Alternative ways of assessing model fit. Sociological methods & Research 1992; 21(2):.
  43. Hu L, Bentler PM. Fit indices in covariance structure modeling: Sensitivity to underparameterized model misspecification. Psychological Methods 1998; 3(4): 424-53. doi:10.1037/1082-989X.3.4.424
  44. Brown KW, Ryan RM. The benefits of being present: mindfulness and its role in psychological well- being. J PersSocPsychol 2003; 84(4): 822- 48.
  45. Barnhofer T, Duggan D, Crane C, Hopburn, S, Fennell MJ, Williams JM. Effects of meditation on frontal (alpha) asymmetry in previously suicidal individuals. Neuroreport 2007; 18(7): 709-12.
  46. Wenzel M, Versen CV, Hirschmüller S, Kubiak T. Curb your neuroticism - Mindfulness mediates the link between neuroticism and subjective well-being. Personality and Individual Differences 2015; 80: 68-75.
  47. Besharat MA. Relationship of alexithymia, depression, subjective well-being. Journal of tabriz university 2007; 3(10): 24-46 [In Persian].
  48. ParkerJDA, Taylor GJ, Bagby RM. The relationship between emotional intelligence and alexithymia. PersIndivid Differ 2001; 30(1): 107-15.
  49. Eisenlohr-Moul TA, Walsh EC, Charnigo RJ, Lynam DR, Baer RA. Thewhat and the how of dispositional mindfulness using interactions among sub-scales of the five-facet mindfulness questionnaire to understand its relation to substance use. Assessment 2012; 19(3): 276-86.
  50. Buchheld N, Grossman P, Walach H. Measuring mindfulness in insight meditation (Vipassana) and meditation-based psychotherapy: The development of the Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory (FMI). JMMR 2001; 1: 11-34.
  51. Feldman G, Hayes A, Kumar S, Greeson J, Laurenceau JP. Mindfulness and Emotion Regulation: The Development and Initial Validation of the Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness Scale-Revised (CAMS-R). J PsychopatholBehav Assess 2007; 29: 177-90.
  52. Aldao A, Nolen-Hoeksema S. Specificity of cognitive emotion regulation strategies: a Trans diagnostic examination. Behavioral Res Ther 2010; 48(10): 974-83.
  53. Bowen S, Chawla N, Marlatt GA. Mindfulness-based relapse prevention for addictive behaviors.A clinician guide New York, London, The Guilford press, 2011; P 37.