Comparison of Craniovertebral Angle of Students based on Gender and Field of Study Differences

Document Type: Original Article

Authors

1 Professor, Department of Sport Medicine and Health, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

2 Assistant professor, Department of Sport Medicine and Health, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

3 PhD student, Department of Sport Medicine and Health, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

4 Research Assistant, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

Abstract

Background: Since neck bears head’s weight, its abnormal position not only makes an inharmonious appearancebut also can cause musculoskeletal disorders. The aim of this study was to compare the craniovertebral (CV) angle of students based on their gender and field of study.
Methods: In this descriptive study, 1017 students (511 female and 506 male students) of Tehran Universities in different academic fields (Humanities, Basic Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine) were investigated. After recording age, weight and height of students, their CV angle was measured using Head Posture Spinal Curvature Instrument (HPSCI) and recorded in the data collection form. Based on the gender and field of study of students, CV angles were compared using two-way ANOVA and data were analyzed through SPSS18. Statistical significant level was considered at P=0.05.
Results: Mean CV angle of female students was higher than that of males in all academic fields. The highest degree of CV angle was observed in the male engineering students (46.85°), and female medical students (48.65°) and the lowest was seen in the male basic sciences students (47.41°) and female humanities students (50.54°). According to the obtained results, CV angle has significant relationship with both gender and field of study (P=0.001).
Conclusion: Since no norm has been determined for the mean CV angle of the students at this age range, therefore, the degree of forward head posture of them cannot be definitely described. However, due to the growing tendency among studentsto pursue study, it is essential to inform themabout the correct body posture to prevent subsequent musculoskeletal disorders.

Keywords


  1. Sahrman S. Movement system impairment syndromes of the extremities, cervical and thoracic spine St. Louis, Mosby; 2010.
  2. Seidi F. The effect of a 12-week corrective exercises program on Forward head and shoulder deformities. Studies in Sport Medicine 2014; 5(14): 31-44.
  3. Keyvanloo F, Seyedahmadi M, Behpoor N. The Systematic Study of Cervical Curvature in Forward Head Posture (FHP). J Sport 2010; 7(13):27-38 [In Persian].
  4. Chiu TT, Ku WY, Lee MH, Sum WK, Wan MP, Wong CY, et al. A study on the prevalence of and risk factors for neck pain among university academic staff in Hong Kong. J OccupRehabil 2002; 12(2): 77-91.
  5. Rajabi R. Thoracic kyphosis. Tehran, university of Tehran press, 2013;PP 162-3 [In Persian].
  6. McLean SM, May S, Klaber-Moffett J, Sharp DM, Gardiner E. Risk factors for the onset of non-specific neck pain: a systematic review. J Epidemiol Community Health 2010; 64(7): 565-72.
  7. Motiallah T, MoslemiHaghighi F, Ghanbari A, Amir Moezi S, Saadat Z. The correlation between forward head posture and trigger points in trapezius muscle in subjects with chronic neck pain. JRRS 2012; 8(6): 989-97 [In Persian].
  8. Murphy S, Buckle P, Stubbs D. Classroom posture and self-reported back and neck pain in schoolchildren. Applied Ergonomics 2004; 35(2):113-20.
  9. Harris C, Straker L. Survey of physical ergonomics issues associated with school children's use of laptop computers. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics 2000; 26: 337-47.
  10. Banaeifar AA, Shahedi V, Sharifizar K, Sadeghi A, RahmaniMoghadam N. Investigation of structural deformities in male students of Islamic Azad University SouthTehranBranch 2008; 1(3): 81-9 [In Persian].
  11. Ruivo RM, Pezarat-Correia P, Carita AI. Cervical and shoulder postural assessment of adolescents between 15 and 17 years old and association with upper quadrant pain. Braz J PhysTher2014; 18(4): 364-71.
  12. Yip CH, Chiu TT, Poon AT. The relationship between head posture and severity and disability of patients with neck pain. Man Ther 2008; 13(2): 148-54.
  13. Mahdavinejad R. Effect ofphysicalactivityonposturalcorrectionof spinaldeformities in Tehranschool students. M.Sc. thesis, University of Tehran, 2001;[In Persian].
  14. Pascarelli EF, Hsu YP. Understanding work-related upper extremity disorders: clinical findings in 485 computer users, musicians, and others. J OccupRehabil.2001; 11(1):1-21.
  15. Thigpen CA, Padua DA, Michener LA, Guskiewicz K, Giuliani C, Keener JD, and Stergiou N. Head and shoulder posture affect scapular mechanics and muscle activity in overhead tasks. J ElectromyogrKines 2010; 20(4):701-9.
  16. Wilmarth MA, Hilliard TS. Measuring head posture via the craniovertebral angle. Orthopaedic Physical Therapy Practice 2003; 14(1):13–5.
  17. Taheri H, Mahdavinejad R, BagherianDehkordi S, Omidali Z. Comparison of forward head in persons with chronic neck pain and healthy Persons. JRRS 2010; 7(2): 162-8 [In Persian].
  18. Jacobs K, Foley G, Punnett L, Hall V, Gore R, Brownson E, et al. University students' notebook computer use: lessons learned using e-diaries to report musculoskeletal discomfort.Ergonomics2011; 54(2): 206-19.
  19. Brink Y, Crous L.C, Louw QA, Schreve L.K, et al. The association between postural alignment and psychosocial factors to upper quadrant pain in high school students: A prospective study. Manual Therapy 2009; 14(6): 647-53.
  20. Kendall FP, McCreary EK. Muscles, testing and function: with posture and pain. 5th ed., Baltimore, Lippincoot Williams & Wilkins, 2005; PP 459-464.