Photocatalytic removal of o-chlorophenol by Using a Mixture of Modified Fly Ash and TiO2 Nanoparticles

Document Type: Original Article

Authors

1 Professor, Environmental Health Engineering Research Center & Department of Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran

2 Professor, Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health & Water Quality Research Centre, Institute for Environmental Research, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

3 MSc, Environmental Health Research Center, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran

Abstract

Abstract

Background: Photocatalytic process is used as a suitable method for o-chlorophenol removal. In this study, the efficiency of a mixture of modified fly ash and TiO2 nanoparticles in photocatalytic removal of o-chlorophenol was evaluated.
Methods: After acid washing of fly ash, the absorbent was oxidized with potassium permanganate. Then, the substrate mixture of modified fly ash and TiO2 nanoparticles was used for photocatalytic decomposition of o-chlorophenol.
Results: The percentage of carbon increased from 77.94% to 86.52% after acid washing of fly ash and absorption efficiency increased from 58.8% up to 83.3%. During the oxidation of acid washed fly ash, absorption efficiency reached to 93.27%. Photocatalytic removal efficiency of o-chlorophenol by mixture of modified fly ash and TiO2 increased to 98.9%. Photocatalytic removal efficiency of o-chlorophenol by TiO2/UV and without use of fly ash was 78.7%.
Conclusion: Industrial application of this method recommended because of the simple modification, high efficiency removal and prevention of environment pollution.
 

Keywords


  1. Khanikar N, Bhattacharyya KG. Cu(II)-kaolinite and Cu(II)-montmorillonite as catalysts for wet oxidative degradation of 2-chlorophenol, 4-chlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol. Chemical Engineering Journal. 2013; 233(0):88-97.
  2. Fattahi N, Assadi Y, Hosseini MRM, Jahromi EZ. Determination of chlorophenols in water samples using simultaneous dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction and derivatization followed by gas chromatography-electron-capture detection. Journal of Chromatography A. 2007; 1157(1-2):23-9.
  3. Sun D, Zhang H. Electrochemical determination of 2-chlorophenol using an acetylene black film modified glassy carbon electrode. Water res. 2006; 40(16): 3069-74.
  4. Andini S, Cioffi R, Colangelo F, Montagnaro F, Santoro L. Adsorption of chlorophenol, chloroaniline and methylene blue on fuel oil fly ash. J hazard mater 2008; 157(2-3):599-604.
  5. Lin S.H, Pan C.L, Leu H.G. Equilibrium and mass transfer characteristics of 2-chlorophenol removal from aqueous solution by liquid membrane. Chemical Engineering Journal 2002; 87(2):163-9.
  6. Mangrulkar PA, Kamble SP, Meshram J, Rayalu SS. Adsorption of phenol and o-chlorophenol by mesoporous MCM-41. J Hazard Mater 2008; 160(2-3): 414-21.
  7. Nadavala SK, Swayampakula K, Boddu VM, Abburi K. Biosorption of phenol and o-chlorophenol from aqueous solutions on to chitosan–calcium alginate blended beads. J Hazard Mater 2009; 162(1): 482-9.
  8. Sarkar M, Acharya PK. Use of fly ash for the removal of phenol and its analogues from contaminated water. Waste Manag 2006; 26(6): 559-70.
  9. Altunlu M, Yapar S. Effect of OH−/Al3+ and Al3+/clay ratios on the adsorption properties of Al-pillared bentonites. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects. 2007; 306(1-3): 88-94.
  10. Tu Y, Xiong Y, Tian S, Kong L, Descorme C. Catalytic wet air oxidation of 2-chlorophenol over sewage sludge-derived carbon-based catalysts. J hazard mater 2014; 276: 88-96.
  11. Yang B, Zhang J, Zhang Y, Deng S, Yu G, Wu J, et al. Promoting effect of EDTA on catalytic activity of highly stable Al–Ni bimetal alloy for dechlorination of 2-chlorophenol. Chemical Engineering Journal 2014; 250: 222-9.
  12. Bertelli M, Selli E. Reaction paths and efficiency of photocatalysis on TiO2 and of H2O2 photolysis in the degradation of 2-chlorophenol. J Hazard Mater 2006; 138(1): 46-52.
  13. Rezaee A, Pourtaghi G, Khavanin A, Saraf Mamoori R, Hajizadeh E, Vali pour F. Elimination of toluene by Application of ultraviolet irradiation on TiO2 nano particles photocatalyst. Journal of Military Medicine2007; 9(3): 217-22.
  14. Wasu L, Virote B. Enhancing the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 co-doping of graphene Fe3+ ions for formaldehyde removal. Journal of Environmental Management 2013; 127:142-9.
  15. Visa M, Duta A. TiO2/fly ash novel substrate for simultaneous removal of heavy metals and surfactants. Chemical Engineering Journal. 2013; 223(0):860-8.
  16. Kuncoro EP, Fahmi MZ. Removal of Hg and Pb in aqueous solution using coal fly ash adsorbent. Procedia Earth and Planetary Science. 2013; 6:377-82.
  17. Anbia M, Amirmahmoodi S. Adsorption of phenolic compounds from aqueous solutions using functionalized SBA-15 as a nano-sorbent. Scientia Iranica 2011; 18(3):446-52.
  18. Kazemian H, Ghaffari Kashani T, Noorian MS. Synthesis and characterization of zeolite A, using fly ash of the Iran Ferrosilice Company and investigating its ion-exchange properties. Iranian society of crystallography and mineralogy. 2005; 13(2):329-36.
  19. Malarvizhi TS, Santhi T, Manonmani S. A Comparative Study of Modified Lignite Fly Ash for the Adsorption of Nickel from Aqueous Solution by Column and Batch Mode Study. Research Journal of Chemical Sciences 2013; 3(2): 44-53.
  20. Tiwari M, Sahu SK, Bhangare RC, Ajmal PY, Pandit GG. Elemental characterization of coal, fly ash, and bottom ash using an energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence technique. Appl Radiat Isot 2014; 90: 53-7.
  21. Malakootian M, Almasi A, Hossaini H. Pb and Co removal from paint industries effluent using wood ash. International Journal of Environmental Science & Technology 2008; 5(2):217-22.
  22. Malakootian M, Asadi M. Efficiency of fenton oxidation process in removal of phenol in aqueous solutions. Journal of Water and Wastewater 2011; 22(3): 46-52
  23. Malakootian M, Mansuri F. Hexavalent chromium removal by titanium dioxide photocatalytic reduction and the effect of phenol and humic acid on its removal efficiency. International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2015; 4(1): 19.
  24. Malakootian M, Mesdaghinia A, Rezaei S. Evaluation of removal efficiency of 2-chlorophenol in aquatic environments by modified fly ash. 2015; 2(4): 179-85.
  25. Malakootian M, Mesdaghinia A, Rezaei S. The Photocatalytic Removal of Ortho Chlorophenol from Aqueous Solution Using Modified Fly Ash-Titanium Dioxide. Journal of Water and Wastewater 2016; 27(2):14-21.
  26. Malakootian M, Rezaee S, Nasiri A.R, Amirmahani N. Removal of Methylene Blue Dye from Aqueous Solutions Using Activated Fly Ash from Zarand Power Plant in Kerman. Journal ofwater and wastewater 2015; 3:62-71.
  27. Malakoutian M, Mesdaghinia A, Rezaei S. Efficiency of ortho-chlorophenol removal from aqueous solutions using activated Fly Ash of Zarand Fossil Fuel Power Plant. Journal of School of Public Health and Institute of Public Health Research 2014; 12(2): 81-92.
  28. Rezaei S, Malakootian M. Kinetics and Isotherm Studies of Methylene Blue Adsorption from Aqueous Solutions by Activated Fly Ash. Toloo-e-Behdasht 2016; 14(6):149-66.
  29. Wang S, Wu H. Environmental-benign utilisation of fly ash as low-cost adsorbents. J hazard mater 2006; 136(3): 482-501.
  30. Zhang A, Wang N, Zhou J, Jiang P, Liu G. Heterogeneous Fenton-like catalytic removal of p-nitrophenol in water using acid-activated fly ash. J hazard mater 2012; 201:68-73.
  31. Luo F, Liu Y, Li X, Xuan Z, Ma J. Biosorption of lead ion by chemically-modified biomass of marine brown algae Laminaria japonica. Chemosphere 2006; 64(7): 1122-7.
  32. Tahir H, Sultan M, Akhtar N, Hameed U, Abid T. Application of natural and modified sugar cane bagasse for the removal of dye from aqueous solution. Journal of Saudi Chemical Society 2016; 20(1): S115-S121.
  33. Karunakaran C, Gomathisankar P, Manikandan G. Solar photocatalytic detoxification of cyanide by different forms of TiO2. Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering. 2011; 28(5): 1214-20
  34. Kashiwakura S, Ohno H, Kumagai Y, Kubo H, Matsubae K, Nagasaka T. Dissolution behavior of selenium from coal fly ash particles for the development of an acid-washing process. Chemosphere 2011; 85(4): 598-602.
  35. Li Y, Liu C, Luan Z, Peng X, Zhu C, Chen Z, et al. Phosphate removal from aqueous solutions using raw and activated red mud and fly ash. J Hazard Mater 2006; 137(1): 374-83.
  36. Wang S, Boyjoo Y, Choueib A, Zhu ZH. Removal of dyes from aqueous solution using fly ash and red mud. Water Res 2005; 39(1):129-38.
  37. Panitchakarn P, Klamrassamee T, Laosiripojana N, Viriya-empikul N, Pavasant P. Synthesis and Testing of Zeolite from Industrial-Waste Coal Fly Ash as Sorbent For Water Adsorption from Ethanol Solution. Engineering Journal 2014; 18(1): 1-12.
  38. Rodríguez-Reinoso F. The role of carbon materials in heterogeneous catalysis. Carbon 1998; 36(3): 159-75.
  39. Jeon C, Park JY, Yoo YJ. Characteristics of metal removal using carboxylated alginic acid. Water Res 2002; 36(7): 1814-24.
  40. Abdel Aal A, Barakat M, Mohamed RM. Electrophoreted Zn–TiO2–ZnO nanocomposite coating films for photocatalytic degradation of 2-chlorophenol. Applied Surface Science 2008; 254(15): 4577-83.
  41. Huo P, Yan Y, Li S, Li H, Huang W, Chen S, et al. H2O2 modified surface of TiO2/fly-ash cenospheres and enhanced photocatalytic activity on methylene blue. Desalination 2010; 263(1-3):258-63.
  42. Visa M, Duta A. Methyl-orange and cadmium simultaneous removal using fly ash and photo-Fenton systems. J hazard mater 2013; 244: 773-9.
  43. Visa M, Carcel RA, Andronic L, Duta A. Advanced treatment of wastewater with methyl orange and heavy metals on TiO2, fly ash and their mixtures. Catalysis Today 2009; 144(1):137-42.
  44. Shi Z, Yao S, Sui C. Application of fly ash supported titanium dioxide for phenol photodegradation in aqueous solution. Catalysis Science & Technology. 2011; 1(5): 817-22.
  45. Hemmati Borji S, Nasseri S, Nabizadeh R, Mahvi AH, Javadi AH. Photocatalytic degradation of phenol in Aqueous Solutions by Fe(III)-doped TiO2/UV Process. Iran J Health & Environ 2011; 3(4): 369-80.
  46. Ghaneian M.T, Ehrampoush M.H, Ghanizadeh Gh, Dehvary M, Abootoraby M, Jasemizad T. Application of Solar Irradiation / K2S2O8 Photochemical Oxidation Process for the Removal of Reactive Blue 19 Dye fromAqueous Solutions. Iran J Health & Environ 2010; 3(2): 165-76.
  47. Parastar S, Poureshg Y, Nasseri S, Vosoughi M, Golestanifar H, Hemmati S, et al. Photocatalytic removal of nitrate from aqueous solutions by ZnO/UV process. Journal health and hygiene. 2012; 3(3):54-61.
  48. Shirzad Siboni M, Samadi M.T, Rahmani A.R, Khataee A.R, Bordbar M, Samarghandi M.R. Photocatalytic Removal of Hexavalet Chromium and Divalent Nickel fromAqueous Solution by UV Irradiation in the Presence of Titanium Dioxide Vanoparticles. Iranian Journal of Health and Environment 2010; 3(3): 261-70.