Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oil and Methanol Extract of Aerial Parts of Ziziphora clinopodioides Var. rigida

Document Type: Original Article


1 Associate Professor, Department of Biology, Lorestan University, Khoramabad, Iran

2 Department of Biology, Lorestan University, Khoramabad, Iran


Introduction:  Plants are a rich source of phenolic compounds that as natural antioxidants prevent oxidative stress and are very good for health. Ziziphora clinopodioides belongs to Lamiaceae family and its aerial parts are used in pharmaceutical and food industries. It is effective in the treatment of heart disorders, cold, depression, diarrhea, coughing, migraine and fever. This study aimed to identify the composition and antioxidant activity of the essential oil and extract of Ziziphora clinopodioides as an alternative to synthetic antioxidants.
Method: Ziziphora clinopodioides was collected from Bardsir Mountains (Kerman province) and dried in shade. Essential oil was obtained by hydro distillation method using Clevenger apparatus. Essential oil was analyzed using GC/MS apparatus. Methanol extract was concentrated by rotary evaporator. Possible antioxidant activities of the essential oil and extract were studied using beta carotene linoleic acid and DPPH methods.
Results: The major constituents of essential oil were (+) –pulegone (52.41%), dihydrocarvyl acetate (14.13 %), 1.8-cineole (12.98%) and D-neoisomenthol (4.19 %). The extract of flower had the highest antioxidant activity (the least IC50) in DPPH assay while in beta carotene linoleic acid, the essential oil of flower had the highest antioxidant activity.
Conclusion: The main component of essential oil of Ziziphora clinopodioides collected from Bardsir (Kerman province) was pulegone. The essential oil and methanol extract of this plant showed remarkable antioxidant activities; therefore, it can be used as an antioxidant in food and pharmaceutical industries.


  1. Laster P, Midori H, Toshikazu Y. Antioxidant food supplements in human health. Sandiago Adademic Press, 1999; 371-2.
  2. Leake DS, Rankin S. M. The oxidative modification of low-density lipoproteins by macrophages. Biochem J 1990; 270(3): 471-8.
  3. Nige E. Cellular oxidative process in realation to renal disease. Nephrol 2005; 25: 13-22.
  4. Ames BN, Shigenaga MK, Hagen TM. Oxidants, antioxidants, and the degenerative diseases of aging. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1993; 90(17): 7915-22.
  5. Abdalla A E, Roozen JP. The effects of stabilized extracts of sage and oregano on the oxidation of salade dressings. Euro Food Res Techol 2001; 212, 515–560.
  6. Ansari ME. Quality and quantity of essential oil of Ziziphora clinopoidioides masses with narrow leaves In the North East of Iran. M.Sc. thesis. Isamic Azad University, Branch of Karaj. 2009; [Persian].
  7. Dormana HJD, Peltoketo A, Hiltunen R, Tikkanen MJ. Characterisation of the antioxidant properties of de-odourised aqueous extacts from selected lamiaceae herbs. Food Chem 2003; 83 (2), 255-262.
  8. Mozaffarian V. A Dictionary Of Iranian Plant Names, Latin- English-persian.FarhangMoaser. 2006; (1): 591 [persian].
  9. Zargari A. Iranian medicinal plants. Tehran university press. Tehran. Iran. 1995; (4): 103- 104 [Persian].
  10. Sajadi SE, GhasemiDehkordi N, Baloochi M. Volatile constituents of Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. J PajooheshvaSazandeghi 2003; 8: 1-9 [Persian].
  11. Mehrabian SM, Karazhyan R, HadadKh M H, Habibi N M B, Beiraghi T S. Effect of essential oil and extract of Ziziphora clinopodioides on yoghurt starter culture activity. Iraian J Food SciTechnol 2007; 3(4): 47-53.
  12. EbrahimNejad S. Identification of essential oils components of, Ziziphora clinopodioides, Stachys schtschegleevii, Salvia sahendica and Stenotaenia nudicaulis and biological properties of the essential oils and their different extracts. End ‌ e Graduate Institute of medicinal plant raw materials, martyr Beheshti University, 1994 [Persian].
  13. BakhshiKh Gh, Sephidkan F, Dehghan Z. Effect of habitat conditions on quality and quantity of essential oil Ziziphora clinopodioides. J Herbal Medicines 2010; 1: 11-20.
  14. Ozturk S., Ercisli S. The chemical composition of Essential oil and in vitro antibacterial activities of essential oils and methanol extract of Ziziphora persica Bunge. JEhtanopharmacology 2006; 106(3): 372-6.
  15. Verdian-Rizi, M.R. 2008. Essential oil composition and biological activity of Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. from Iran. American-Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 2(1): 69-71.
  16. Shahbazi Y. Chemical composition and in Vitro antibacterial effect of Ziziphora clinopodioides essential oil. Pharmaceutical Sciences 2015; 21: 51-6
  17. Adams R. P. Identification of essential oil components by Gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. Illinois, Allured Publishing Corporation, 2001.
  18. Kamkar A, Shariatifar N, Jamshidi A H, Mohammadian M. Study of antioxidant functional of the water, methanoland ethanol extracts of endemic Cuminum cyminum L. and CardariadrabaL. in the In-vitro Systems. Ofogh-e-Danesh 2010; 16: 37-45 [Persian].
  19. Aghajani Z, Assadian F, MasoudiSh, Chalabian F, Esmaeili A, Tabatabaei M, Rustaiyan A. Chemical. composition and in vitro antibacterial activities of the oil of Ziziphora clinopodioides and Z. capitata from Iran. Chem Nat Comp 2008; 44(3): 387-389.
  20. Salehi P, Sonboli A, Eftekhar F, Nejad-Ebrahimi S, Yousefzadi M. Essential oil composition, antibacterial and antioxidant activity of the oil and various extracts of Ziziphoraclinopodioidessubsp.rigida (Boiss.) RECH. F. from Iran. Biol Pharm Bul 2005; 28(10): 1892-6.
  21. Ozturk S, Ercisli S. Antibacterial activity and chemical constitutions of Ziziphora clinopodioides. Food Control 2007; 18, 535–540.
  22. SoltaniNejad SH, Mokhtari T, Rahbarian P. Antibacterial effect of essential oil and methanol extracts Ziziphora tenuior mountain on some pathogenic bacteria. JMicrobial Biotech Res 2010; 2(5): 1-6 [Persian].
  23. Meral GE, Konyalioglu S, Ozturk B. Essential oil composition and antioxidant activity of endemic Ziziphora taurica subsp. cleonioides. Fitoterapia 2002;(73), 716–718
  24. Sardashti1 A R, Valizadeh J,Adhami Y. Chemical composition of the essential oil from Ziziphora clinopodioids Lam. from Iran by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). J Hort. Fores 2012; 4(10): 169-171.
  25. Amiri H. Composition and antioxidant activity of the essential oil and methanolic extract of Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam in preflowering stage. J Kerman Uni Med Sci 2009; 16(1): 79-86 [Persian].
  26. Chitsaz M, Pergar A, Naseri M, Kamalinajad M, Bazargan M, Mansouri S, Ansari F. Composition of the essential oil and antibacterial activity of alcoholic extract and oil of Ziziphora clinopodiodes. LAM on selected bacteria. Daneshvar J 2007; 14 (68), 15-22 [Persian].