The perspectives of Traditional Persian Medicine on the Diagnosis and Treatment of Migraine

Document Type: Review Article


1 Student Research Committee, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Neurology, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran

3 Ph.D. Candidate, Student Research Committee, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran

4 Professor, Traditional and Complementary Medicine Research Center (TCMRC), Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran


Background:Headache is a common clinical symptom which goes far back in human history. This study is a quick review on headache concerning its diagnosis and treatment based on writings of Rhazes and Avicenna as the most distinguished and prominent scholars in Iranian medical history.
Methods: In this review the reliable literature on related traditional medicine was investigated. The sources include: Al-Hawi Fi Al-Tibb (Liber the Continens), Mansuri fi al-tahb, the treasure of Khwarazm shah, The Canon of Medicine, Kamil al-Sanate al-Tebie as well as related articles retrieved from different databases.
These databases included Scopus, Medline, PubMed, science Direct, SID, and Google Scholar. In addition, other original texts and sources of Neurology were perused and relevant information was abstracted. In this regard, the diseases of the head, Suda (headache), and the subset of the disease, the term of Shaqeeqa (migraine), were searched in original books of Persian medicine.
Results: Diagnosis of temperament, diet modification, use of medicinal herbs and treatments such as massage, bloodletting, dry cupping and purgation of the body from various additional materials were considered as important components of the treatment protocol.
Conclusion: The differential diagnosis of migraine from other types of headaches, as well as providing a unique and specific theory for the cause of migraine in the works of Rhazes and Avicenna is surprising. Also, the use of multiple therapies in the treatment of migraine and the selection of herbs with sedative, anti-inflammatory and dermal compositions make it necessary to reconsider and study the experiences of traditional medicine practitioners again.


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