The Effect of Different Solutions on Optical Behavior of Polished and Glazed Zirconia-Reinforced Lithium Silicate Ceramics

Document Type: Original Article


1 Assistant professor, Department of Prosthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran

2 PhD Candidate, Department of Biostatistics, Faculty of Health, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran

3 Resident of Prosthodontics, Department of Prosthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran


Background: This study sought to assess the effect of glazing and polishing surface treatments on the optical behavior of zirconia-reinforced lithium silicate ceramics thermocycled in different solutions.
Methods:Computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing ceramics (VITA Suprinity) were cut into samples (n=104) measuring 1.5x14x10 mm according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Also, the samples were then randomly divided into four groups for immersion in artificial saliva, tea, orange juice and cola. A spectrophotometer was used to assess the color change and changes in L* coordinate against a white and a black background. The translucency parameter and contrast ratio were also calculated. The ∆E and L* values were analyzed using two-way ANOVA test. Student’s t-test was applied to analyze TP and CR.
Results: The interaction effect of the type of solution and type of surface treatment on color change against a white (P=0.008) and black (P<0.001) background was statistically significant. Immersion of ceramic samples in orange juice and cola caused significant changes in TP and CR in the polishing and glazing groups (P < 0.05).
Conclusion:Immersion in orange juice causes clinically perceivable color change in glazed ZLS ceramics. Immersion in cola decreases the translucency of both polished and glazed ZLS ceramics.


  1. Wohlwend A, Strub JR, Schärer P. Metal ceramic and all-porcelain restorations: current considerations. Int J Prosthodont 1989; 2(1):13-26.
  2. Malament KA, Grossman DG. The cast glass-ceramic restoration. J Prosthet Dent 1987; 57(6):674-83.
  3. Geller Wl, Kwiatkowski SJ. The Willi's glas crown: a new solution in the dark and shadowed zones of esthetic porcelain restorations. Quintessence Dent Technol 1987; 11(4):233-42.
  4. Son HJ, Kim WC, Jun SH, Kim YS, Ju SW, Ahn JS. Influence of dentin porcelain thickness on layered all-ceramic restoration color. J Dent 2010; 38(Suppl 2):e71-7.
  5. Kim HK, Kim SH. Effect of the number of coloring liquid applications on the optical properties of monolithic zirconia. Dent Mater 2014; 30(9):e229-37.
  6. Culp L, McLaren EA. Lithium disilicate: the restorative material of multiple options. Compend Contin Educ Dent 2010; 31(9):716-25.
  7. Elsaka SE, Elnaghy AM. Mechanical properties of zirconia reinforced lithium silicate glass-ceramic. Dent Mater 2016; 32(7):908-14.
  8. Ritter RG. Multifunctional uses of a novel ceramic‐lithium disilicate. J Esthet Restor Dent 2010; 22(5):332-41.
  9. Denry I, Kelly JR. Emerging ceramic-based materials for dentistry. J Dent Res 2014; 93(12):1235-42.
  10. Kelly JR, Benetti P. Ceramic materials in dentistry: historical evolution and current practice. Aust Dent J 2011; 56(Suppl 1):84-96.
  11. Niu E, Agustin M, Douglas RD. Color match of machinable lithium disilicate ceramics: effects of cement color and thickness. J Prosthet Dent 2014; 111(1):42-50.
  12. Guess PC, Zavanelli RA, Silva NR, Bonfante EA, Coelho PG, Thompson VP. Monolithic CAD/CAM lithium disilicate versus veneered Y-TZP crowns: comparison of failure modes and reliability after fatigue. Int J Prosthodont 2010; 23(5):434-42.
  13. Pieger S, Salman A, Bidra AS. Clinical outcomes of lithium disilicate single crowns and partial fixed dental prostheses: a systematic review. J Prosthet Dent 2014; 112(1):22-30.
  14. Schultheis S, Strub JR, Gerds TA, Guess PC. Monolithic and bi-layer CAD/CAM lithium–disilicate versus metal–ceramic fixed dental prostheses: comparison of fracture loads and failure modes after fatigue. Clin Oral Investig 2013; 17(5):1407-13.
  15. Vichi A, Fonzar RF, Goracci C, Carrabba M, Ferrari M. Surface roughness and gloss of lithium-based glass ceramics after finishing. Dental Materials 2016; 32(1):e81-2.
  16. Wang F, Takahashi H, Iwasaki N. Translucency of dental ceramics with different thicknesses. J Prosthet Dent 2013; 110(1):14-20.
  17. de Oliveira AL, Botta AC, Campos JÁ, Garcia PP. Effects of immersion media and repolishing on color stability and superficial morphology of nanofilled composite resin. Microsc Microanal 2014; 20(4):1234-9.
  18. De Azevedo Cubas GB, Camacho GB, Demarco FF, Pereira-Cenci T. The effect of luting agents and ceramic thickness on the color variation of different ceramics against a chromatic background. Eur J Dent 2011; 5(3):245-52.
  19. Alp G, Subasi MG, Johnston WM, Yilmaz B. Effect of surface treatments and coffee thermocycling on the color and translucency of CAD-CAM monolithic glass-ceramic. J Prosthet Dent 2018; 120(2):263-8.
  20. Dos Santos DM, da Silva EV, Watanabe D, Bitencourt SB, Guiotti AM, Goiato MC. Effect of different acidic solutions on the optical behavior of lithium disilicate ceramics. J Prosthet Dent 2017; 118(3):430-6.
  21. Turssi CP, Hara AT, de Magalhães CS, Serra MC, Rodrigues AL Jr. Influence of storage regime prior to abrasion on surface topography of restorative materials. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 2003; 65(2):227-32.
  22. Ren YF, Feng L, Serban D, Malmstrom HS. Effects of common beverage colorants on color stability of dental composite resins: the utility of a thermocycling stain challenge model in vitro. J Dent 2012; 40(Suppl 1) e48-e56.
  23. Faverani LP, Barão VA, Ramalho‐Ferreira G, Ferreira MB, Garcia‐Júnior IR, Assunção WG. Effect of bleaching agents and soft drink on titanium surface topography. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 2014; 102(1):22-30.
  24. Lee SH, Lee YK, Lim BS. Influence of thermocycling on the optical properties of laboratory resin composites and an all-ceramic material. J Mater Sci Mater Med 2004; 15(11):1221-26.
  25. Lehmann KM, Igiel C, Schmidtmann I, Scheller H. Four color-measuring devices compared with a spectrophotometric reference system. J Dent 2010; 38(Supple 2):e65-70.
  26. Gregorius WC, Kattadiyil MT, Goodacre CJ, Roggenkamp CL, Powers JM, Paravina RD. Effects of ageing and staining on color of acrylic resin denture teeth. J Dent 2012; 40(Supple 2):e47-54.
  27. Acar O, Yilmaz B, Altintas SH, Chandrasekaran I, Johnston WM. Color stainability of CAD/CAM and nanocomposite resin materials. J Prosthet Dent 2016; 115(1):71-5.
  28. Nogueira AD1, Della Bona A. The effect of a coupling medium on color and translucency of CAD–CAM ceramics. J Dent 2013; 41(Supple 3):e18-23.
  29. Hipólito AC, Barão VA, Faverani LP, Ferreira MB, Assunção WG. Color degradation of acrylic resin denture teeth as a function of liquid diet: ultraviolet-visible reflection analysis. J Biomed Opt 2013; 18(10):105005.
  30. Ardu S, Braut V, Gutemberg D, Krejci I, Dietschi D, Feilzer AJ. A long-term laboratory test on staining susceptibility of esthetic composite resin materials. Quintessence Int 2010; 41(8):695-702.
  31. Bagis B, Turgut S. Optical properties of current ceramics systems for laminate veneers. J Dent 2013; 41(Suppl 3):e24-30.
  32. Fontes ST, Fernández MR, de Moura CM, Meireles SS. Color stability of a nanofill composite: effect of different immersion media. J Appl Oral Sci 2009; 17(5):388-91.
  33. Catelan A, Briso AL, Sundfeld RH, Goiato MC, dos Santos PH. Color stability of sealed composite resin restorative materials after ultraviolet artificial aging and immersion in staining solutions. J Prosthet Dent 2011; 105(4):236-41.
  34. Bagheri R, Burrow MF, Tyas M. Influence of food-simulating solutions and surface finish on susceptibility to staining of aesthetic restorative materials. J Dent 2005; 33(5):389-98.
  35. Ccahuana VZ, Ozcan M, Mesquita AM, Nishioka RS, Kimpara ET, Bottino MA. Surface degradation of glass ceramics after exposure to acidulated phosphate fluoride. J Appl Oral Sci 2010; 18(2):155-65.
  36. Ryan EA, Tam LE, McComb D. Comparative translucency of esthetic composite resin restorative materials. J Can Dent Assoc 2010; 76:84.
  37. Johnston WM, Ma T, Kienle BH. Translucency parameter of colorants for maxillofacial prostheses. Int J Prosthodont 1995; 8(1):79-86.
  38. Ramos Nde C, Campos TM, Paz IS, Machado JP, Bottino MA, Cesar PF, et al. Microstructure characterization and SCG of newly engineered dental ceramics. Dent Mater 2016; 32(7):870-8.
  39. Belli R, Wendler M, de Ligny D, Cicconi MR, Petschelt A, Peterlik H, et al. Chairside CAD/CAM materials. Part 1: measurement of elastic constants and microstructural characterization. Dent Mater 2017; 33(1):84-98.
  40. Tan BL, Yap AU, Ma HN, Chew J, Tan WJ. Effect of beverages on color and translucency of new tooth-colored restoratives. Oper Dent 2015; 40(2):E56-65.