A comparative study of chemical compounds and antibacterial activity of medicinal plants of Dracocephalum Lindbergii Rech.f and Dracocephalum subcapitatum (kuntze) Lipsky growing in North Khorasan province, Iran

Authors

1 M.Sc Student, Department of Chemistry , Slamic Azad University, Bojnourd, Iran

2 Assistance Professor, Department of Chemistry , Slamic Azad University, Bojnourd, Iran

3 Assistance Professor, Department of Chemistry, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran

Abstract

Background: A number of aromatic medicinal plants used for treating infection disease have been mentioned in different phytotherapy manuals due to their availability, fewer side effects, and reduced toxicity.Dracocephalum L is one of the most important genuses of Lamiaceae.The aim of our study was to evaluate the chemical compositions of Dracocephalum Lindbergii Rech.fand Dracocephalum subcapitatum (O.kuntze) Lipskyand there is antimicrobial activites.
Methods: Two species of Dracocephalum (Dracocephalum Lindbergii Rech.fand Dracocephalum subcapitatum (O.kuntze) Lipsky ) were collected at North Khorasan province.Extracting the essential oil of the aerial parts of the plant was done through the method of hydrodistillation using Clevenger, and the identification of the essential oils components were carried out through GC-MS. The antibacterial activity was performed against three human pathogenic bacteria including:Escherichia Coli,Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus atrophaeuse, using disk diffusion method.
Results: Forty-two components were identified in the essential oil of the species Deracocephalum Lindbergii Rech.f., representing 90.69% of the total oil. The highest percentage of the components belongs to β-ocimene with 17.58%. Thirty components were identified in the plant Deracocephalum subcapitatum (O.kuntze) Lipsky, representing 87.24% of the total oil, in which the highest percentage belongs to β-ocimene with 24.45%. The antibacterial effects showed that the bacteria of Bacillus atrophaeus and Staphylococcus aureus with the diameter inhibition zones of 29 and 33 mm were the most sensitive. In addition, the essential oil of D.subcapitatum (O.kuntze) with a diameter of 33 mm inhibition zone had the highest antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus bacteria.
Conclusion: Based on the results of this study,the chemical variations of the volatile oils  of two Dracocephalum  species might be correlated with geographical regions and enviromental conditions play a significant role in biosynthesis of the components of the oil. Also,The results of the antibacterial examination of the essential oil s of the studied species can lead to the discovery of new antibacterial agents. 

Keywords


  1. Asadi M. Flora of Iran (Grossulariaceae). Tehran: Research institute of Florest and Rangelands of Iran; 1997. [In Persian].
  2. Dastmalchi K, Damien Dorman HJ, Koşar M, Hiltunen R. Chemical composition and in vitro antioxidant evaluation of a water-soluble Moldavian balm (Dracocephalum moldavica L.) extract. LWT 2007; 40(2):239-48.
  3. Rechinger KH. Six new species of Gagea (Liliaceae) from the Flora Iranica area. Plant Syst Evol 1986; 153(3-4):287-92.
  4. Azadbakht M. Classification Medicinal Plants. Tehran; Teymorzade, Tabib: 1999. [In Persian].
  5. Mojab F, Rustaiyan A, Khalighi Sigaroodi F. Essential oil of Dracocephalum multicarle Montbr. & Auch (Labiatae). Journal of Medicinal Plants 2002; 4(4):68-71. [In Persian].
  6. Golparvar AR, Hadipanah A, Gheisari MM, Khaliliazar R. Chemical constituents of essential oil of Dracocephalum moldavica L. and Dracocephalum kotschyi Boiss. from Iran. Acta Agriculturae Slovenica 2016; 107(1):25.
  7. Lu M, Tian X. Analysis of essential oil of Dracocephalum heterophyllum Benth. Yaoxue Xuebao 1999; 34(12):925-7.
  8. Najafpour Navaei M, Mirza M. Comparative survay on the essential oil composition of cultivated and wild Dracocephalum kotschyi. Iranian Journal of Medical and Aromatic Plants 2007; 23(1):128-33. [In Persian].
  9. Yousefzadeh S, Modarres-Sanavy SA, Sefidkon F, Asgarzadeh A, Ghalavand A, Sadat-Asilan K. Effects of Azocompost and urea on the herbage yield and contents and compositions of essential oils from two genotypes of dragonhead (Dracocephalum moldavica L.) in two regions of Iran. Food Chem 2013; 138(2-3):1407-13.
  10. Yaghmai MS, Taffazoli R. The essential oil of Dracocephalum kotschyi Boiss. Flavour Fragr J 1988; 3(1):33-6.
  11. Saeidnia S, Gohari AR, Hadjiakhoondi A, Shafiee A. Bioactive compounds of the volatile oil of Dracocephalum kotschyi. Z Naturforsch C 2007; 62(11-12):793-6.
  12. Zhang C, Li H, Yun T, Fu Y, Liu C, Gong B, et al. Chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil of Tibetan herbal medicine Dracocephalum heterophyllum Benth. Nat Prod Res 2008; 22(1):1-11.
  13. Sonboli A, Gholipour A, Mirjalili MH, Amini Rad M. Molecular characterization of Iranian Dracocephalum (Lamiaceae) species based on RAPD data. Acta Biologica Szegediensis 2011; 55(2):227-30.
  14. Singh N, Kaul VK, Megeji NW, Singh V, Ahuja PS. Essential oil composition of three accessions of Dracocephalum heterophyllum Benth. cultivated at Palampur, India. Nat Prod Res 2008; 22(11):927-36.
  15. Wang L, Wang S, Yang S, Guo X, Lou H, Ren D. Phenolic alkaloids from the aerial parts of Dracocephalum heterophyllum. Phytochemistry 2012; 82:166-71.
  16. Jahaniani F, Ebrahimi SA, Rahbar-Roshandel N, Mahmoudian M. Xanthomicrol is the main cytotoxic component of Dracocephalum kotschyii and a potential anti-cancer agent. Phytochemistry 2005; 66(13):1581-92.
  17. Mandegary A, Soodi M, Sharififar F, Ahmadi S. Anticholinesterase, antioxidant, and neuroprotective effects of Tripleurospermum disciforme and Dracocephalum multicaule. J Ayurveda Integr Med 2014; 5(3):162-6.
  18. Adams RP. Identification of Essential Oil Components by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry. 4th ed. USA: Allured Publishing Corporation; 2007.
  19. Council of Europe. European Pharmacopoeia 7.0. 2918 Preparations for Inhalation: Aerodynamic Assessment of Fine Particles. 2010; 274-85.
  20. Nascimento GG, Locatelli J, Freitas PC, Silva GL. Antibacterial activity of plant extracts and phytochemicals on antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Braz J Microbiol 2000; 31(4):247-56.