The Relationship between Brain Volume, Brain Weight and IQ in Children in Primary Schools in the South of Iran

Document Type: Original Article

Authors

1 M.Sc., Department of Anatomy, Afzalipour School of Medicine, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran

2 Professor, Department of Anatomy, Afzalipour School of Medicine, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran

3 Associate Professor, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran

4 Assistant Professor, Department of Psychiatry, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran

5 Assistant Professor, Department of Anatomy, Afzalipour School of Medicine, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran

Abstract

Background: Anthropometry is a branch of anatomy. One of the important parts of anthropometry is cephalometry, which is characterized by anatomical dimensions of the head area. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between brain volume, weight, and IQ in children.
Methods: This descriptive-analytical study was performed on 300 students. Conventional measuring instruments were used for anthropometric measurements. Body weight and skull dimensions were measured. Then, using the appropriate formulas, the volume and weight of the brain and the brain index were measured.
Results: The Pearson correlation coefficient confirmed a weak correlation between the amounts of IQ and anthropometric dimension in female samples. The mean head circumference of males was 2 cm above the mean head circumference of females. Compared to the central index and the dispersion, anthropometric dimensions were significant between boys and girls. According to the analysis of neural network, the anthropometric dimensions of head height, brain weight, head width, and brain index in boys and anthropometric dimensions around the head volume of head width and head height in girls were the most important in relation to IQ.
Conclusion: The results of this study showed that there was a significant statistical difference between the central index and the distribution of anthropometric dimensions in boys and girls. Moreover, there was not a significant relationship between IQ and anthropometric dimensions of the body. In girls, there was a weak correlation between IQ and head width, head height, brain volume, and brain weight.

Keywords


  1. Farahani RM, Nooranipour M. Anatomy and anthropometry of human stapes. American journal of otolaryngology. 2008;29(1):42-7.
  2. Eftekhar-Vaghefi SH, Shams-Ara A, Jamalizade M. A Study of the Anatomic Variations in Extrahepatic Bile Ducts in 50 Adults Referred to Kerman Forensic Medicine Organization. Anatomical Sciences Journal. 2013;10(1):57-62.
  3. Golalipour MJ. The variation of head shapes in 17-20 years old native Fars male in Gorgan-North of Iran. International Journal of Morphology. 2006;24(2):187-90.
  4. Pheasant S, Haslegrave CM. Bodyspace: Anthropometry, ergonomics and the design of work: CRC Press; 2016.
  5. Umar M, Singh R, Shugaba A. Cephalometric indices among Nigerians. Journal of Applied Sciences. 2006;6(4):939-42.
  6. Sadler TW. Langman's medical embryology: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2011.
  7. Epstein HT. Stages in human brain development. Developmental Brain Research. 1986;30(1):114-9.
  8. Manjunath K. Estimation of cranial volume-an overview of methodologies. J Anat Soc India. 2002;51(1):85-91.
  9. Golalipour M, Haidari K, Jahanshahi M, Farahani R. The shapes of head and face in normal male newborns in South-East of Caspian sea (Iran-Gorgan). J Anat Soc India. 2003;52(1):28-31.
  10. con la Tribal Korku N-T. Comparative study of cranial capacity of the non-tribal with Korku Tribal population of Madhya Pradesh, India. Int j morphol. 2012;30(1):263-5.
  11. Brooks‐Gunn J, Klebanov PK, Duncan GJ. Ethnic differences in children's intelligence test scores: Role of economic deprivation, home environment, and maternal characteristics. Child development. 1996;67(2):396-408.
  12. Mastery Farahani R, Mohammadi Nasab K, Fadaei Fathabadi F. The Relationship between Neurocranium Anthropometry and Intelligence Quality among Iranian Students in Cold and Tropical Areas. The Neuroscience Journal of Shefaye Khatam. 2015;3(3):64-70.
  13. Lazarus R, Wake M, Hesketh K, Waters E. Change in body mass index in Australian primary school children, 1985-1997. International Journal of Obesity. 2000;24(6):679.
  14. SAFI KZ, GHAVAMIZADEH B, NEAMAT PR. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE BRAIN VOLUME AND IQ IN CHILDREN 9-11 YEARS OF AGE IN AHWAZ. 2007.
  15. Chirita-Emandi A, Doros G, Simina I, Gafencu M, Puiu M. HEAD CIRCUMFERENCE REFERENCES FOR SCHOOL AGE CHILDREN IN WESTERN ROMANIA. Revista medico-chirurgicala a Societatii de Medici si Naturalisti din Iasi. 2015;119(4):1083-91.
  16. Gohiya VK. A Comparative study of cranial capacities in BHEEL tribe & non-tribal population in age group 20-25 yesrs old in madhia pradesh. Journal of Punjab Academy of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology. 2010;10(2).
  17. Pakkenberg H, Voigt J. Brain weight of the Danes. Cells Tissues Organs. 1964;56(4):297-307.
  18. Voigt J, Pakkenberg H. Brain weight of Danish children. Cells Tissues Organs. 1983;116(4):290-301.
  19. Bartholomeusz H, Courchesne E, Karns C. Relationship between head circumference and brain volume in healthy normal toddlers, children, and adults. Neuropediatrics. 2002;33(05):239-41.
  20. Batterjee AA, Khaleefa O, Ashaer K, Lynn R. Normative data for IQ, height and head circumference for children in Saudi Arabia. Journal of biosocial science. 2013;45(4):451-9.
  21. Acer N, Usanmaz M, Tugay U, Erteki'n T. Estimation of cranial capacity in 17-26 years old university students/estimacion de la capacidad craneana en estudiantes universitarios entre 17 y 26 anos de edad. International Journal of Morphology. 2007;25(1):65-71.
  22. Tramo MJ, Loftus W, Stukel T, Green R, Weaver J, Gazzaniga M. Brain size, head size, and intelligence quotient in monozygotic twins. Neurology. 1998;50(5):1246-52.
  23. McDaniel MA. Big-brained people are smarter: A meta-analysis of the relationship between in vivo brain volume and intelligence. Intelligence. 2005;33(4):337-46.