Traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains a primary cause of mortality and plays a substantial role in causing different impairments, such as somatosensory and cognitive deficits. Regular daily exercise is the focus of prevention and management of injuries. In this research, we examined the impact of eight weeks of aerobic exercise on neurological outcomes, brain water content (BWC), blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability, electrophysiological characteristics, and concentrations of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in an experimental model of TBI. Sixty- four male Wistar rats divided in four main group: Control, Train, TBI and Train-TBI. TBI was induced using the Marmarou method in this study. After TBI induction, eight weeks of aerobic exercise performed by five-line animal treadmill. Then, the rat memory and learning was assessed by Morris water maze. Electrode were implanted in the skulls of anesthetized rats for single- unit recording. Neurological scores, BWC, BBB permeability and cerebral tissue BDNF concentrations were measured 48 h after exercise. Statistical analysis was conducted using one-way ANOVA, followed by Tukey's post hoc test for multiple comparisons. p < 0.05 was considered to determine significant differences. The aerobic exercise reversed decrement of neurological scores, neuronal firing rate of the hippocampus, increments of BWC, cognition deficits and cerebral tissue Evans blue concentration after TBI in comparison with control significantly. It also increased cerebral tissue BDNF, which was decreased in the TBI significantly. Our results suggest that aerobic exercise has neuroprotective effects on memory impairment and decrements of neuronal firing rate due to TBI through BDNF increment.