Evaluation of the Cytotoxicity, Antibacterial, Antioxidant, and Anti-inflammatory Effects of Different Extracts of Punica granatum var. pleniflora

Document Type : Original Article


1 Assistant Professor, Physiology Research Center, Institute of Basic and Clinical Physiology Sciences, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Traditional Pharmacy, Faculty of Traditional Medicine, Kerman University of Medical sciences, Kerman, Iran

3 Professor, Physiology Research Center, Institute of Basic and Clinical Physiology Sciences, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran

4 Cardiovascular Research Center, Institute of Basic and Clinical Physiology Sciences, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran

5 Ph.D. Student, Pharmaceutical Sciences and Cosmetic Products Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran

6 Ph.D. Student, Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran

7 Ph.D. Student, Research Center for Hydatid Disease in Iran, School of Medicine, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran

8 Student Research Committee, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran

9 Professor, Herbal and Traditional Medicines Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran


Background:Punica granatum var. pleniflora (PGP) has been used for thousands of years as an effective agent to treat various types of diseases. However, there are a few new evidences addressing its therapeutic effects and related mechanisms. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the cytotoxic, antioxidant, antibacterial, and anti-inflammatory effects of ethanolic (ET), dichloromethane (DM), and ethyl acetate (EA) extracts of PGP.
Methods: ET, DM, and EA extracts of PGP were first prepared using maceration method. Total phenolic content (TPC) of PGP was then assessed by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay, and its antioxidant capacity was determined by DPPH and FRAP methods. Furthermore, in-vitro antibacterial activity of the PGP extracts was performed. The effect of PGP on the viability of J774A.1, HUVECs, HT29, and MCF-7 cell lines was evaluated by the MTT assay. The anti-inflammatory effect of PGP was assessed in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated J774A.1 cell line using qRT-PCR method.
Results: EA extract contained the highest phenolic content (383.3 ± 9.1 mg gallic acid/g extract) and showed the highest antioxidant activity (IC50 = 36.5 ± 2.3 µg/mL). PGP at concentration of 15 µg/mL significantly decreased the expression of COX-2 (ET) and iNOS (ET and EA) in J774A.1 cell. Also, EA showed the highest antibacterial activity. Furthermore, the PGP extracts decreased the viability of all tested cell lines in a concentration-dependent manner. As indicated by IC50, EA demonstrated the lowest IC50 for all tested cell lines.
Conclusion: According to the results, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and cytotoxic effects of PGP might be driven by its phenolic compounds highly presented in the EA extract.


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